2 chengbing1314 chengbing1314 于 2014.06.15 09:32 提问

linux系统下使用snmpset命令始终报错,,,

[root@localhost 桌面]# snmpset -v2c -c public -On localhost system.sysName.0 s linux
Error in packet.
Reason: noAccess
Failed object: .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0
始终处于这个错误,请各路大神帮帮我,感激不尽,,,,我的conmpd.conf文件是:
###############################################################################
#

snmpd.conf:

An example configuration file for configuring the ucd-snmp snmpd agent.

#
###############################################################################
#

This file is intended to only be as a starting point. Many more

configuration directives exist than are mentioned in this file. For

full details, see the snmpd.conf(5) manual page.

#

All lines beginning with a '#' are comments and are intended for you

to read. All other lines are configuration commands for the agent.

###############################################################################

Access Control

###############################################################################

As shipped, the snmpd demon will only respond to queries on the

system mib group until this file is replaced or modified for

security purposes. Examples are shown below about how to increase the

level of access.

By far, the most common question I get about the agent is "why won't

it work?", when really it should be "how do I configure the agent to

allow me to access it?"

#

By default, the agent responds to the "public" community for read

only access, if run out of the box without any configuration file in

place. The following examples show you other ways of configuring

the agent so that you can change the community names, and give

yourself write access to the mib tree as well.

#

For more information, read the FAQ as well as the snmpd.conf(5)

manual page.

####

First, map the community name "public" into a "security name"

sec.name source community

com2sec notConfigUser default public

####

Second, map the security name into a group name:

groupName securityModel securityName

group notConfigGroup v1 notConfigUser
group notConfigGroup v2c notConfigUser

####

Third, create a view for us to let the group have rights to:

Make at least snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public system fast again.

name incl/excl subtree mask(optional)

view systemview included .1
view systemview included .1.3.6.1.2.1.1
view systemview included .1.3.6.1.2.1.25.1.1

####

Finally, grant the group read-only access to the systemview view.

group context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif

access notConfigGroup "" any noauth exact systemview none none

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Here is a commented out example configuration that allows less

restrictive access.

YOU SHOULD CHANGE THE "COMMUNITY" TOKEN BELOW TO A NEW KEYWORD ONLY

KNOWN AT YOUR SITE. YOU MUST CHANGE THE NETWORK TOKEN BELOW TO

SOMETHING REFLECTING YOUR LOCAL NETWORK ADDRESS SPACE.

sec.name source community

#com2sec local localhost COMMUNITY
#com2sec mynetwork NETWORK/24 COMMUNITY

group.name sec.model sec.name

#group MyRWGroup any local
#group MyROGroup any mynetwork
#
#group MyRWGroup any otherv3user
#...

incl/excl subtree mask

#view all included .1 80

-or just the mib2 tree-

#view mib2 included .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2 fc

context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif

#access MyROGroup "" any noauth 0 all none none
#access MyRWGroup "" any noauth 0 all all all

###############################################################################

Sample configuration to make net-snmpd RFC 1213.

Unfortunately v1 and v2c don't allow any user based authentification, so

opening up the default config is not an option from a security point.

#

WARNING: If you uncomment the following lines you allow write access to your

snmpd daemon from any source! To avoid this use different names for your

community or split out the write access to a different community and

restrict it to your local network.

Also remember to comment the syslocation and syscontact parameters later as

otherwise they are still read only (see FAQ for net-snmp).

#

First, map the community name "public" into a "security name"

sec.name source community

#com2sec notConfigUser default public

Second, map the security name into a group name:

groupName securityModel securityName

#group notConfigGroup v1 notConfigUser
#group notConfigGroup v2c notConfigUser

Third, create a view for us to let the group have rights to:

Open up the whole tree for ro, make the RFC 1213 required ones rw.

name incl/excl subtree mask(optional)

#view roview included .1
#view rwview included system.sysContact
#view rwview included system.sysName
#view rwview included system.sysLocation
#view rwview included interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifAdminStatus
#view rwview included at.atTable.atEntry.atPhysAddress
#view rwview included at.atTable.atEntry.atNetAddress
#view rwview included ip.ipForwarding
#view rwview included ip.ipDefaultTTL
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteDest
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteIfIndex
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric1
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric2
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric3
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric4
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteType
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteAge
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMask
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric5
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaIfIndex
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaPhysAddress
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaNetAddress
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaType
#view rwview included tcp.tcpConnTable.tcpConnEntry.tcpConnState
#view rwview included egp.egpNeighTable.egpNeighEntry.egpNeighEventTrigger
#view rwview included snmp.snmpEnableAuthenTraps

Finally, grant the group read-only access to the systemview view.

group context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif

#access notConfigGroup "" any noauth exact roview rwview none

###############################################################################

System contact information

#

It is also possible to set the sysContact and sysLocation system

variables through the snmpd.conf file:

syslocation Unknown (edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf)
syscontact Root root@localhost (configure /etc/snmp/snmp.local.conf)

Example output of snmpwalk:

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public system

system.sysDescr.0 = "SunOS name sun4c"

system.sysObjectID.0 = OID: enterprises.ucdavis.ucdSnmpAgent.sunos4

system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (595637548) 68 days, 22:32:55

system.sysContact.0 = "Me me@somewhere.org"

system.sysName.0 = "name"

system.sysLocation.0 = "Right here, right now."

system.sysServices.0 = 72

###############################################################################

Logging

#

We do not want annoying "Connection from UDP: " messages in syslog.

If the following option is commented out, snmpd will print each incoming

connection, which can be useful for debugging.

dontLogTCPWrappersConnects yes

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

###############################################################################

Process checks.

#

The following are examples of how to use the agent to check for

processes running on the host. The syntax looks something like:

#

proc NAME [MAX=0] [MIN=0]

#

NAME: the name of the process to check for. It must match

exactly (ie, http will not find httpd processes).

MAX: the maximum number allowed to be running. Defaults to 0.

MIN: the minimum number to be running. Defaults to 0.

#

Examples (commented out by default):

#

Make sure mountd is running

proc mountd

Make sure there are no more than 4 ntalkds running, but 0 is ok too.

proc ntalkd 4

Make sure at least one sendmail, but less than or equal to 10 are running.

proc sendmail 10 1

A snmpwalk of the process mib tree would look something like this:

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.2

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prIndex.1 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prIndex.2 = 2

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prIndex.3 = 3

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prNames.1 = "mountd"

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prNames.2 = "ntalkd"

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prNames.3 = "sendmail"

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMin.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMin.2 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMin.3 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMax.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMax.2 = 4

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMax.3 = 10

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prCount.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prCount.2 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prCount.3 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrorFlag.1 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrorFlag.2 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrorFlag.3 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrMessage.1 = "No mountd process running."

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrMessage.2 = ""

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrMessage.3 = ""

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrFix.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrFix.2 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrFix.3 = 0

#

Note that the errorFlag for mountd is set to 1 because one is not

running (in this case an rpc.mountd is, but thats not good enough),

and the ErrMessage tells you what's wrong. The configuration

imposed in the snmpd.conf file is also shown.

Special Case: When the min and max numbers are both 0, it assumes

you want a max of infinity and a min of 1.

#

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

###############################################################################

Executables/scripts

#

#

You can also have programs run by the agent that return a single

line of output and an exit code. Here are two examples.

#

exec NAME PROGRAM [ARGS ...]

#

NAME: A generic name. The name must be unique for each exec statement.

PROGRAM: The program to run. Include the path!

ARGS: optional arguments to be passed to the program

a simple hello world

exec echotest /bin/echo hello world

Run a shell script containing:

#

#!/bin/sh

echo hello world

echo hi there

exit 35

#

Note: this has been specifically commented out to prevent

accidental security holes due to someone else on your system writing

a /tmp/shtest before you do. Uncomment to use it.

#
#exec shelltest /bin/sh /tmp/shtest

Then,

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.8

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extIndex.1 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extIndex.2 = 2

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extNames.1 = "echotest"

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extNames.2 = "shelltest"

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extCommand.1 = "/bin/echo hello world"

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extCommand.2 = "/bin/sh /tmp/shtest"

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extResult.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extResult.2 = 35

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extOutput.1 = "hello world."

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extOutput.2 = "hello world."

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extErrFix.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extErrFix.2 = 0

Note that the second line of the /tmp/shtest shell script is cut

off. Also note that the exit status of 35 was returned.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

###############################################################################

disk checks

#

The agent can check the amount of available disk space, and make

sure it is above a set limit.

disk PATH [MIN=100000]

#

PATH: mount path to the disk in question.

MIN: Disks with space below this value will have the Mib's errorFlag set.

Default value = 100000.

Check the / partition and make sure it contains at least 10 megs.

disk / 10000

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskIndex.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskPath.1 = "/" Hex: 2F

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskDevice.1 = "/dev/dsk/c201d6s0"

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskMinimum.1 = 10000

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskTotal.1 = 837130

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskAvail.1 = 316325

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskUsed.1 = 437092

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskPercent.1 = 58

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskErrorFlag.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskErrorMsg.1 = ""

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

###############################################################################

load average checks

#

load [1MAX=12.0] [5MAX=12.0] [15MAX=12.0]

#

1MAX: If the 1 minute load average is above this limit at query

time, the errorFlag will be set.

5MAX: Similar, but for 5 min average.

15MAX: Similar, but for 15 min average.

Check for loads:

load 12 14 14

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.10

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveIndex.1 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveIndex.2 = 2

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveIndex.3 = 3

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveNames.1 = "Load-1"

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveNames.2 = "Load-5"

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveNames.3 = "Load-15"

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveLoad.1 = "0.49" Hex: 30 2E 34 39

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveLoad.2 = "0.31" Hex: 30 2E 33 31

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveLoad.3 = "0.26" Hex: 30 2E 32 36

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveConfig.1 = "12.00"

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveConfig.2 = "14.00"

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveConfig.3 = "14.00"

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrorFlag.1 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrorFlag.2 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrorFlag.3 = 0

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrMessage.1 = ""

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrMessage.2 = ""

enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrMessage.3 = ""

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

###############################################################################

Extensible sections.

This alleviates the multiple line output problem found in the

previous executable mib by placing each mib in its own mib table:

Run a shell script containing:

#

#!/bin/sh

echo hello world

echo hi there

exit 35

#

Note: this has been specifically commented out to prevent

accidental security holes due to someone else on your system writing

a /tmp/shtest before you do. Uncomment to use it.

#

exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.50 shelltest /bin/sh /tmp/shtest

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.50

enterprises.ucdavis.50.1.1 = 1

enterprises.ucdavis.50.2.1 = "shelltest"

enterprises.ucdavis.50.3.1 = "/bin/sh /tmp/shtest"

enterprises.ucdavis.50.100.1 = 35

enterprises.ucdavis.50.101.1 = "hello world."

enterprises.ucdavis.50.101.2 = "hi there."

enterprises.ucdavis.50.102.1 = 0

Now the Output has grown to two lines, and we can see the 'hi

there.' output as the second line from our shell script.

#

Note that you must alter the mib.txt file to be correct if you want

the .50.* outputs above to change to reasonable text descriptions.

Other ideas:

exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.51 ps /bin/ps

exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.52 top /usr/local/bin/top

exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.53 mailq /usr/bin/mailq

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

###############################################################################

Pass through control.

Usage:

pass MIBOID EXEC-COMMAND

#

This will pass total control of the mib underneath the MIBOID

portion of the mib to the EXEC-COMMAND.

#

Note: You'll have to change the path of the passtest script to your

source directory or install it in the given location.

Example: (see the script for details)

(commented out here since it requires that you place the

script in the right location. (its not installed by default))

pass .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255 /bin/sh /usr/local/local/passtest

% snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255

enterprises.ucdavis.255.1 = "life the universe and everything"

enterprises.ucdavis.255.2.1 = 42

enterprises.ucdavis.255.2.2 = OID: 42.42.42

enterprises.ucdavis.255.3 = Timeticks: (363136200) 42 days, 0:42:42

enterprises.ucdavis.255.4 = IpAddress: 127.0.0.1

enterprises.ucdavis.255.5 = 42

enterprises.ucdavis.255.6 = Gauge: 42

#

% snmpget -v 1 localhost public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255.5

enterprises.ucdavis.255.5 = 42

#

% snmpset -v 1 localhost public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255.1 s "New string"

enterprises.ucdavis.255.1 = "New string"

#

For specific usage information, see the man/snmpd.conf.5 manual page

as well as the local/passtest script used in the above example.

###############################################################################

Further Information

#

See the snmpd.conf manual page, and the output of "snmpd -H".

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