dqkf36241
2018-02-14 18:39 阅读 200

如何使用mgo插入文档并获取返回值

For the record, I'm learning Go. I'm trying to use and the mgo package and I'd like to insert a new document and return this newly created document to user (I'm trying to write a basic API). I've wrote the following code:

EDIT: Here's the struct for the model:

type Book struct {
  ISBN    string   `json:"isbn"`
  Title   string   `json:"title"`
  Authors []string `json:"authors"`
  Price   string   `json:"price"`
}

session := s.Copy()
defer session.Close()

var book Book
decoder := json.NewDecoder(r.Body)
err := decoder.Decode(&book)
if err != nil {
    ErrorWithJSON(w, "Incorrect body", http.StatusBadRequest)
    return
}

c := session.DB("store").C("books")

info, err := c.Upsert(nil, book)

if err != nil {
    ErrorWithJSON(w, "Database error", http.StatusInternalServerError)
log.Println("Failed insert book: ", err)
    return
}

respBody, err := json.MarshalIndent(info, "", "  ")
if err != nil {
    log.Fatal(err)
}

ResponseWithJSON(w, respBody, http.StatusOK)

Please note that Book is a struct I have created earlier. The above code does work but what it returns is the upsert result like so:

{
    "Updated": 1,
    "Removed": 0,
    "Matched": 1,
    "UpsertedId": null
}

Which is not the recently created object. How can I get the the recently created object to return as a response (please note that ideally I'd like the confirmation that the document was successfully inserted. I have seen other questions where the ID is generated beforehand but for what I've seen it doesn't confirm that the document was created was it?)

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2条回答 默认 最新

  • 已采纳
    doubi4491 doubi4491 2018-02-15 08:38

    Let's clear the concepts first. In MongoDB, each document must have an _id property which acts as its unique document identifier inside a collection. Either you provide the value of this _id or it is assigned automatically by MongoDB.

    So it would be ideal (or it's strongly recommended) for your model types to include a field for the _id document identifier. Since we're talking about books here, books already have a unique identifier called ISBN, which you may opt to use as the value of the _id field.

    The mapping between MongoDB fields and Go struct fields must be specified using the bson tag (not json). So you should provide bson tag values along with json tags.

    So change your model to:

    type Book struct {
      ISBN    string   `json:"isbn" bson:"_id"`
      Title   string   `json:"title" bson:"title"`
      Authors []string `json:"authors" bson:"authors"`
      Price   string   `json:"price" bson:"price"`
    }
    

    If you want to insert a new document (a new book), you should always use Collection.Insert().

    And what will be the ID of the newly inserted document? The field you set to the Book.ISBN field as we declared it to be the document ID with the bson:"_id" tag.

    You should only use Collection.Upsert() if you are not sure whether the document already exists, but either way you want it to be the document you have at hand. Collection.Upsert() will try to find a document to update, and if one is found, that will be updated. If no document is found, then an insert operation will be performed. The first parameter is the selector to find the document to be updated. Since you passed nil, that means any document may qualify, so one will be selected "randomly". So if you already have books saved, any may get selected and get overwritten. This is certainly not want you want.

    Since now the ISBN is the ID, you should specify a selector that filters by ISBN, like this:

    info, err := c.Upsert(bson.M{"_id": book.ISBN}, book)
    

    Or since we're filtering by ID, use the more convenient Collection.UpsertId():

    info, err := c.UpsertId(book.ISBN, book)
    

    If you want to update an existing document, for that you may use Collection.Update(). This is similar to Collection.Upsert(), but the difference is that if no documents match the selector, an insert will not be performed. Updating a document matched by ID can also be done with the more convenient Collection.UpdateId() (which is analogue to Collection.UpsertId()).

    For other documents which do not have a unique identifier naturally (like books having ISBN), you may use generated IDs. The mgo library provides the bson.NewObjectId() function for such purpose, which returns you a value of type bson.ObjectId. When saving new documents with Collection.Insert(), you can acquire a new unique ID with bson.NewObjectId() and assign it to the struct field that is mapped to the MongoDB _id property. If the insert succeeds, you can be sure the document's ID is what you just set before calling Collection.Insert(). This ID generation is designed to work even in a distributed environment, so it will generate unique IDs even if 2 of your nodes attempt to generate an ID at the same time.

    So for example if you don't have the ISBN for a book when saving it, then you must have a separate, designated ID field in your Book type, for example:

    type Book struct {
      ID      bson.ObjectId `bson:"_id"`
      ISBN    string        `json:"isbn" bson:"isbn"`
      Title   string        `json:"title" bson:"title"`
      Authors []string      `json:"authors" bson:"authors"`
      Price   string        `json:"price" bson:"price"`
    }
    

    And when saving a new book:

    var book Book
    // Fill what you have about the book
    book.ID = bson.NewObjectId()
    
    c := session.DB("store").C("books")
    err = c.Insert(book)
    // check error
    // If no error, you can refer to this document via book.ID
    
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  • douqing5981 douqing5981 2019-01-09 12:52

    Banged my head for a while on this.

    info, err := c.Upsert(nil, book)
    

    The nil selector for the upsert will match everything so if your collection is empty the selector won't match and all will be fine, the info object will contain the ObjectId in the UpsertedId field, but on every following upsert with nil selector the collection will have records and the nil selector for the upsert will match, therefore it won't return you the UpsertedId and you will be updating the first matched record.

    You could use never matching selector for the upsert (which was my solution), but note that this way you will only insert and get the inserted ObjectId and never update a record.

    You can checkout the following test:

    func TestFoo(t *testing.T) {
        foo := struct {
            Bar string `bson:"bar"`
        }{
            Bar: "barrr",
        }
    
        session, _ := mgo.DialWithInfo(&mgo.DialInfo{
            Addrs: []string{"127.0.0.1:27017"},
        })
    
        coll := session.DB("foo").C("bar")
        coll.DropCollection()
    
        info, _ := coll.Upsert(nil, foo) // will insert
        count, _ := coll.Count()
        fmt.Printf("%+v, collecton records:%v
    ", info, count) // &{Updated:0 Removed:0 Matched:0 UpsertedId:ObjectIdHex("5c35e8ee1f5b80c932b44afb")}, collection records:1
    
        info, _ = coll.Upsert(bson.M{}, foo) // will update
        count, _ = coll.Count()
        fmt.Printf("%+v, collecton records:%v
    ", info, count) // &{Updated:1 Removed:0 Matched:1 UpsertedId:<nil>}, collection records:1
    
        info, _ = coll.Upsert(bson.M{"nonsense": -1}, foo) // will insert duplicate record (due to the selector that will never match anything)
        count, _ = coll.Count()
        fmt.Printf("%+v, collecton records:%v
    ", info, count) // &{Updated:0 Removed:0 Matched:0 UpsertedId:ObjectIdHex("5c35ea2a1f5b80c932b44b1d")}, collection records:2
    
        foo.Bar = "baz"
        info, _ = coll.Upsert(nil, foo) // will update the first matched (since the selector matches everything)
        count, _ = coll.Count()
        fmt.Printf("%+v, collecton records:%v
    ", info, count)
    
        // after the test the collection will have the following records
        //> use foo
        //> db.bar.find()
        //{ "_id" : ObjectId("5c35ebf41f5b80c932b44b81"), "bar" : "baz" } // the first matched on the last update with nil selector
        //{ "_id" : ObjectId("5c35ebf41f5b80c932b44b86"), "bar" : "barrr" } // the duplicated record with the selector that never matches anything
    
    }
    

    EDIT: Note that you should have an index on the never matching field, or your insert query will take too long if you have many records, because the upsert on not indexed filed will scan all the documents in the collection.

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