TLDR; Go's arbitrary precision constants give you the possibility to work with "real" numbers and not with "boxed" numbers, so "artifacts" like overflow, underflow, infinity corner cases are relieved. You have the possibility to work with higher precision, and only the result have to be converted to limited-precision, mitigating the effect of intermediate errors.
The Go Blog: Constants: (emphasizes are mine answering your question)
Numeric constants live in an arbitrary-precision numeric space; they are just regular numbers. But when they are assigned to a variable the value must be able to fit in the destination. We can declare a constant with a very large value:
const Huge = 1e1000
—that's just a number, after all—but we can't assign it or even print it. This statement won't even compile:
The error is, "constant 1.00000e+1000 overflows float64", which is true. But
Hugemight be useful: we can use it in expressions with other constants and use the value of those expressions if the result can be represented in the range of a
float64. The statement,
fmt.Println(Huge / 1e999)
10, as one would expect.
In a related way, floating-point constants may have very high precision, so that arithmetic involving them is more accurate. The constants defined in the math package are given with many more digits than are available in a
float64. Here is the definition of
Pi = 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097494459
When that value is assigned to a variable, some of the precision will be lost; the assignment will create the
float32) value closest to the high-precision value. This snippet
pi := math.Pi fmt.Println(pi)
Having so many digits available means that calculations like
Pi/2or other more intricate evaluations can carry more precision until the result is assigned, making calculations involving constants easier to write without losing precision. It also means that there is no occasion in which the floating-point corner cases like infinities, soft underflows, and
NaNs arise in constant expressions. (Division by a constant zero is a compile-time error, and when everything is a number there's no such thing as "not a number".)
See related: How does Go perform arithmetic on constants?