douyi3833
2011-11-25 18:00
浏览 9
已采纳

丢掉所有goroutine都在睡觉-死锁! ----— Google GO中的错误

I want to write three concurrent go routines that sends integers to each other. Now, my code is compiled properly, however after first execution it gives error "throw: all goroutines are asleep - deadlock!". I tried to find the error but I could not able to find any error in code logic.Can anybody help me to find the mistake with my code. My code is given below.

package main

import "rand"

func Routine1(command12 chan int, response12 chan int, command13 chan int, response13 chan int) {

    // z12 is a variable which stores the value comming from channel 2 and z13 is a variable which stores the value comming from channel 3.

    z12 := 200
    z13 := 200
    m12 := false
    m13 := false
    y := 0

    for i := 0; i < 20; i++ {
        y = rand.Intn(100)

        // If y's value is not 0 then the value will be sent to routine 2 or 3 according to   prime or not.
        // If y's value is 0 then process state (the varibles used by it means z12, z13) and channel state will be saved.[routine 1 is initiator]

        if y == 0 {
            print(z12, "    z12 STATE SAVED
")
            print(z13, "    z13 STATE SAVED
")

            // Routine 1 is initiator,  it sends 0 to make other process to save the state.

            y = 0
            command12 <- y
            command13 <- y

            // Untill routine 2 and 3 does not send 0, process 1 is on channel saving state (it's process state is already saved).
            // When routine 1 recives 0 from both other processes, channel is saved and routine 1 retuns to it's common routine procedure.
            // When routine 1 recives 0 from any other processes, saving channel bettwen them is stopped.
            // m12, m13 is used to mark whether 0 recived or not.

            for m12 != true || m13 != true {
                select {
                case cmd1 := <-response12:
                    {
                        z12 = cmd1
                        if z12 != 0 {
                            print(z12, "    z12  Channel Saving.... 
")
                            y = rand.Intn(100)
                            command12 <- y
                        }
                        if z12 == 0 {
                            m12 = true
                            print(" z12  Channel Saving Stopped 
")
                        }
                    }

                case cmd2 := <-response13:
                    {
                        z13 = cmd2
                        if z13 != 0 {
                            print(z13, "    z13  Channel Saving.... 
")
                            y = rand.Intn(100)
                            command13 <- y
                        }
                        if z13 == 0 {
                            m13 = true
                            print("    z13  Channel Saving Stopped 
")
                        }
                    }
                }

            }

            // After saving process state it retuns to it's normal behaviour.

            m12 = false
            m13 = false
        }

        if y != 0 {

            // If y value is not 0, routine 1 just sends int to other process according to prime or not and recives int accordingly.

            if y%2 == 0 {
                command12 <- y
            }

            if y%2 != 0 {
                command13 <- y
            }
            select {
            case cmd1 := <-response12:
                {
                    z12 = cmd1
                    print(z12, "    z12
")
                }
            case cmd2 := <-response13:
                {
                    z13 = cmd2
                    print(z13, "   z13
")
                }
            }
        }
    }
    close(command12)
    close(command13)
}


//Routine 2 (or 3) is not an initiator (means it can't send 0). When it recives 0 (from routine 1 or 3) it save the state of process and the state of the channel from which it recived).
// When it recives 0 from both other two routine, it saves all channel state and returns to it's common behaviour. [same in routine 3]

func Routine2(command12 chan int, response12 chan int, command23 chan int, response23 chan int) {
    z21 := 200
    z23 := 200
    m21 := false
    m23 := false

    for i := 0; i < 20; i++ {
        select {
        case x, open := <-command12:
            {
                if !open {
                    return
                }
                if x != 0 && m23 != true {
                    z21 = x
                    print(z21, "   z21
")
                }
                if x != 0 && m23 == true {
                    z21 = x
                    print(z21, "   z21 Channel Saving 
")
                }
                if x == 0 {
                    m21 = true
                    if m21 == true && m23 == true {
                        print(" z21 and z23 Channel Saving Stopped 
")
                        m23 = false
                        m21 = false
                    }
                    if m21 == true && m23 != true {
                        z21 = x
                        print(z21, "   z21  Channel Saved 
")

                    }

                }
            }

        case x, open := <-response23:
            {
                if !open {
                    return
                }
                if x != 0 && m21 != true {
                    z23 = x
                    print(z23, "   z21
")
                }
                if x != 0 && m21 == true {
                    z23 = x
                    print(z23, "   z23 Channel Saving 
")
                }
                if x == 0 {
                    m23 = true
                    if m21 == true && m23 == true {
                        print(" z23 Channel Saving Stopped 
")
                        m23 = false
                        m21 = false
                    }
                    if m23 == true && m21 != true {
                        z23 = x
                        print(z23, "   z23  Channel Saved 
")
                    }

                }
            }
        }

        if m23 == false && m21 == false {
            y := rand.Intn(100)
            if y%2 == 0 {
                if y == 0 {
                    y = 10
                    response12 <- y
                }
            }

            if y%2 != 0 {
                if y == 0 {
                    y = 10
                    response23 <- y
                }
            }
        }

        if m23 == true && m21 != true {
            y := rand.Intn(100)
            response12 <- y
        }

        if m23 != true && m21 == true {
            y := rand.Intn(100)
            command23 <- y
        }

    }
    close(response12)
    close(command23)
}

func Routine3(command13 chan int, response13 chan int, command23 chan int, response23 chan int) {
    z31 := 200
    z32 := 200
    m31 := false
    m32 := false

    for i := 0; i < 20; i++ {
        select {
        case x, open := <-command13:
            {
                if !open {
                    return
                }
                if x != 0 && m32 != true {
                    z31 = x
                    print(z31, "   z21
")
                }
                if x != 0 && m32 == true {
                    z31 = x
                    print(z31, "   z31 Channel Saving 
")
                }
                if x == 0 {
                    m31 = true
                    if m31 == true && m32 == true {
                        print(" z21 Channel Saving Stopped 
")
                        m31 = false
                        m32 = false
                    }
                    if m31 == true && m32 != true {
                        z31 = x
                        print(z31, "   z31  Channel Saved 
")

                    }

                }
            }

        case x, open := <-command23:
            {
                if !open {
                    return
                }
                if x != 0 && m31 != true {
                    z32 = x
                    print(z32, "   z32
")
                }
                if x != 0 && m31 == true {
                    z32 = x
                    print(z32, "   z32 Channel Saving 
")
                }
                if x == 0 {
                    m32 = true
                    if m31 == true && m32 == true {
                        print(" z32 Channel Saving Stopped 
")
                        m31 = false
                        m32 = false
                    }
                    if m32 == true && m31 != true {
                        z32 = x
                        print(z32, "   z32  Channel Saved 
")

                    }

                }
            }
        }
        if m31 == false && m32 == false {
            y := rand.Intn(100)
            if y%2 == 0 {
                response13 <- y
            }

            if y%2 != 0 {
                response23 <- y
            }
        }

        if m31 == true && m32 != true {
            y := rand.Intn(100)
            response13 <- y
        }

        if m31 != true && m32 == true {
            y := rand.Intn(100)
            response23 <- y
        }

    }
    close(response13)
    close(response23)
}


func main() {

    // Three concurrent channels are created to pass integers to each other.
    // command 12 used to send int and response12 is used to receive int from routine 1 to routine 2.
    // response 12 used to send int and command 12 is used to receive int from routine 2 to routine 1. {so as for others}

    command12 := make(chan int)
    response12 := make(chan int)
    command13 := make(chan int)
    response13 := make(chan int)
    command23 := make(chan int)
    response23 := make(chan int)

    go Routine1(command12, response12, command13, response13)
    go Routine2(command12, response12, command23, response23)
    Routine3(command13, response13, command23, response23)
}
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2条回答 默认 最新

  • donglun1918 2011-11-26 13:47
    已采纳

    As others said - your code is too complex for me to quickly find out its intended logic. Anyway a "technical analysis" approach brought some little bits. When adding Gosched as a default case to the select statements and making the channels buffered - then the code no more deadlocks. Though I have no idea what it is doing and if it does what you want it to do.

    It seems to me, from looking at the code, like the behaviour is non deterministic(?). In any case, I think the original code is probably broken by design (e.g. some loops look like they are busy waiting even though they run a hardcoded N times, sic!), sorry to say that.

    The "working" (== who knows what it's doing) code: http://play.golang.org/p/dcUpeJ9EUa

    PS: The buffer size const @ line 325 can't drop bellow 4 (by trial runs with weekly) and seems to provide an another way to change the behavior of the code.

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  • dry0106 2011-11-25 21:31

    I don't know the answer to your problem, but the switch statement in Routine3 looks buggy since it contains two identical case statements (which makes me wonder why 6g does not complain about this code).

    A few suggestions to make your code more legible:

    • As Evan has already pointed out, try to come up with more descriptive names for your variables. Code that reads if someConditionIsMet is easier to understand than if m23 == false.
    • Dry your code by factoring common parts out into functions.
    • Remove dead code like setting a boolean to true and then checking whether it is true or checking whether an odd number is equal to zero.
    • Consider using else instead of if <condition> {...}; if <negated condition> {...}

    I would recommend to try to come up with unit tests which exhaustively describe the expected behavior of your functions. This will not only help you find the bug, but also improve your coding skills. From my experience, code written with tests in mind is often easier to understand, maintain and evolve than untested code.

    Happy hacking :)

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