The "technical" answer to your question can be found here:
As you can see, when printing pointers to Array, Slice, Struct or Map types, the special rule of printing "&" + value applies, but in all other cases the address is printed.
As for why they decided to only apply the rule for those, it seems the authors considered that for "compound" objects you'd be interested in always seeing the values (even when using a pointer), but for other simple values this was not the case.
You can see that reasoning here, where they added the rule for the Map type which was not there before:
I would guess this had to do with the fact that it is very common to use for example pointers to Struct to pass them around (so many times you'd just forget to de-reference the pointer when wanting to print the value), but no so common to use pointers to int or string to pass those around (so if you were printing the pointer you were probably interested in seeing the actual address).