Try to use padding in Java to encrypt. I know nothing about "go" but in Java you are encrypting message with no padding.
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("RSA");
in this code snippet change "RSA" to "RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding" since in "go" as I see you are using some function called "DecryptPKCS1v15", PKCS1 v1.5 standard itself means the PKCS#1 padding to be used. Hope it helps you.