Simulation? 模拟的问题

Problem Description
A computer simulation, a computer model, or a computational model is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, astrophysics, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering, of course, also computer.
“Fundamentals of compiling” is an important course for computer science students. In this course, most of us are asked to write a compiler to simulate how a programming language executes. Today, boring iSea invites a new programming language, whose name is Abnormal Cute Micro (ACM) language, and, YOU are assigned the task to write a compiler for it.
ACM language only contains two kinds of variables and a few kinds of operations or functions, and here are some BNF-like rules for ACM.

Also, here is some explanation for these rules:
1) In ACM expressions, use exactly one blank to separate variables and operators, and as the rule indicates, the operator should apply right to left, for example, the result of “1 - 2 - 3" should be 2.
2) In the build function, use exactly one blank to separate integers, too.
3) Beside there are brackets in function, no other bracket exists.
4) All the variables are conformable, and never exceed 10000.
Given an ACM expression, your task is output its value. If the result is a integer, just report it, otherwise report an array using the format “{integer_0, integer_1, … , integer_n}”.

Input
The first line contains a single integer T, indicating the number of test cases.
Each test case includes a string indicating an valid ACM expression you have to process.

Technical Specification
1. 1 <= T <= 100
2. 1 <= |S| <= 100, |S| indicating the length of the string.

Output
For each test case, output the case number first, then the result variable.

Sample Input
10
1 + 1
1 - 2 - 3
dance(3)
vary(2) * 2
vary(sum(dance(5) - 1))
dance(dance(-3))
1 - 2 - 3 * vary(dull(build(1 2 3)))
dance(dance(dance(dance(dance(2)))))
sum(vary(100)) - sum(build(3038))
build(sum(vary(2)) dull(build(1 0)) 2 dull(dance(2))) - build(1 1 1 1)

Sample Output
Case 1: 2
Case 2: 2
Case 3: {3, -2, 1}
Case 4: {2, 4}
Case 5: {2, 1}
Case 6: -4
Case 7: {2, 5}
Case 8: {4, -3, 2, -1}
Case 9: 2012
Case 10: {2, 0, 1, 2}

Simulation? 模拟的问题
Problem Description A computer simulation, a computer model, or a computational model is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, astrophysics, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering, of course, also computer. “Fundamentals of compiling” is an important course for computer science students. In this course, most of us are asked to write a compiler to simulate how a programming language executes. Today, boring iSea invites a new programming language, whose name is Abnormal Cute Micro (ACM) language, and, YOU are assigned the task to write a compiler for it. ACM language only contains two kinds of variables and a few kinds of operations or functions, and here are some BNF-like rules for ACM. Also, here is some explanation for these rules: 1) In ACM expressions, use exactly one blank to separate variables and operators, and as the rule indicates, the operator should apply right to left, for example, the result of “1 - 2 - 3" should be 2. 2) In the build function, use exactly one blank to separate integers, too. 3) Beside there are brackets in function, no other bracket exists. 4) All the variables are conformable, and never exceed 10000. Given an ACM expression, your task is output its value. If the result is a integer, just report it, otherwise report an array using the format “{integer_0, integer_1, … , integer_n}”. Input The first line contains a single integer T, indicating the number of test cases. Each test case includes a string indicating an valid ACM expression you have to process. Technical Specification 1. 1 <= T <= 100 2. 1 <= |S| <= 100, |S| indicating the length of the string. Output For each test case, output the case number first, then the result variable. Sample Input 10 1 + 1 1 - 2 - 3 dance(3) vary(2) * 2 vary(sum(dance(5) - 1)) dance(dance(-3)) 1 - 2 - 3 * vary(dull(build(1 2 3))) dance(dance(dance(dance(dance(2))))) sum(vary(100)) - sum(build(3038)) build(sum(vary(2)) dull(build(1 0)) 2 dull(dance(2))) - build(1 1 1 1) Sample Output Case 1: 2 Case 2: 2 Case 3: {3, -2, 1} Case 4: {2, 4} Case 5: {2, 1} Case 6: -4 Case 7: {2, 5} Case 8: {4, -3, 2, -1} Case 9: 2012 Case 10: {2, 0, 1, 2}

Description A biologist experimenting with DNA modification of bacteria has found a way to make bacterial colonies sensitive to the surrounding population density. By changing the DNA, he is able to "program"the bacteria to respond to the varying densities in their immediate neighborhood. The culture dish is a square, divided into 400 smaller squares (20x20). Population in each small square is measured on a four point scale (from 0 to 3). The DNA information is represented as an array D, indexed from 0 to 15, of integer values and is interpreted as follows: In any given culture dish square, let K be the sum of that square's density and the densities of the four squares immediately to the left, right, above and below that square (squares outside the dish are considered to have density 0). Then, by the next day, that dish square's density will change by D[K] (which may be a positive, negative, or zero value). The total density cannot, however, exceed 3 nor drop below 0. Now, clearly, some DNA programs cause all the bacteria to die off (e.g., [-3, -3, ..., -3]). Others result in immediate population explosions (e.g., [3,3,3, ..., 3]), and others are just plain boring (e.g., [0, 0,...,0]). The biologist is interested in how some of the less obvious DNA programs might behave. Write a program to simulate the culture growth, reading in the number of days to be simulated, the DNA rules, and the initial population densities of the dish. Input Input to this program consists of three parts: 1. The first line will contain a single integer denoting the number of days to be simulated. 2. The second line will contain the DNA rule D as 16 integer values, ordered from D[0] to D[15], separated from one another by one or more blanks. Each integer will be in the range -3...3, inclusive. 3. The remaining twenty lines of input will describe the initial population density in the culture dish. Each line describes one row of squares in the culture dish, and will contain 20 integers in the range 0?, separated from one another by 1 or more blanks Output The program will produce exactly 20 lines of output, describing the population densities in the culture dish at the end of the simulation. Each line represents a row of squares in the culture dish, and will consist of 20 characters, plus the usual end-of-line terminator. Each character will represent the population density at a single dish square, as follows: No other characters may appear in the output. Sample Input 2 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sample Output ##!................. #!.................. !................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .........!.......... ........!#!......... .......!#X#!........ ........!#!......... .........!.......... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

DNA增长的规则的模拟，怎么采用C语言的代码编写的过程的思想去实现的
Problem Description A biologist experimenting with DNA modification of bacteria has found a way to make bacterial colonies sensitive to the surrounding population density. By changing the DNA, he is able to “program” the bacteria to respond to the varying densities in their immediate neighborhood. The culture dish is a square, divided into 400 smaller squares (20x20). Population in each small square is measured on a four point scale (from 0 to 3). The DNA information is represented as an array D, indexed from 0 to 15, of integer values and is interpreted as follows: In any given culture dish square, let K be the sum of that square's density and the densities of the four squares immediately to the left, right, above and below that square (squares outside the dish are considered to have density 0). Then, by the next day, that dish square's density will change by D[K] (which may be a positive, negative, or zero value). The total density cannot, however, exceed 3 nor drop below 0. Now, clearly, some DNA programs cause all the bacteria to die off (e.g., [-3, -3, …, -3]). Others result in immediate population explosions (e.g., [3,3,3, …, 3]), and others are just plain boring (e.g., [0, 0, … 0]). The biologist is interested in how some of the less obvious DNA programs might behave. Write a program to simulate the culture growth, reading in the number of days to be simulated, the DNA rules, and the initial population densities of the dish. Input Input to this program consists of three parts: 1. The first line will contain a single integer denoting the number of days to be simulated. 2. The second line will contain the DNA rule D as 16 integer values, ordered from D[0] to D[15], separated from one another by one or more blanks. Each integer will be in the range -3…3, inclusive. 3. The remaining twenty lines of input will describe the initial population density in the culture dish. Each line describes one row of squares in the culture dish, and will contain 20 integers in the range 0…3, separated from one another by 1 or more blanks. Output The program will produce exactly 20 lines of output, describing the population densities in the culture dish at the end of the simulation. Each line represents a row of squares in the culture dish, and will consist of 20 characters, plus the usual end-of-line terminator. Each character will represent the population density at a single dish square, as follows: No other characters may appear in the output. Sample Input 1 2 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sample Output ##!................. #!.................. !................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .........!.......... ........!#!......... .......!#X#!........ ........!#!......... .........!.......... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... .................... ....................

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