weixin_39885412
weixin_39885412
2020-12-02 16:51

Stdout buffer not being drained fast enough

Description of problem

This is bit of a weird one.

We have an internal workload that uses a specific version of a NodeJS docker image - node:10.16.3-stretch. This workload also emits a large amount of logs to stdout. The combination of using this node version and logging a large amount of logs causes the workload on Kata to fail.

This is due to the specific version of NodeJS changing the blocking mode of stdout to non-blocking. Then when the workload goes to emit logs to stdout later (in a separate, non-node command), it fails when it tries to write to stdout that is full.

You can find more information on NodeJS changing the mode of stdout here: - https://github.com/nodejs/node/issues/14752 - https://github.com/travis-ci/travis-ci/issues/4704

I've confirmed that the mode of stdout is changed with after node has been run:


python3 -c 'import os,sys,fcntl; flags = fcntl.fcntl(sys.stdout, fcntl.F_GETFL); print(flags&os.O_NONBLOCK);'
2048

I've developed the following script that can be used to replicate:

bash
#!/bin/bash

set -ex

characters=$1

function isNonBlocking {
  python3 -c 'import os,sys,fcntl; flags = fcntl.fcntl(sys.stdout, fcntl.F_GETFL); print(flags&os.O_NONBLOCK);'
}

isNonBlocking

node -e 'console.log("hello");'

isNonBlocking

python3 -c "print(str('f')*${characters})"

And can be run with:


./script.sh 70000

The problem with this script is that it will fail the same on both Kata and Runc. But with the workload, it doesn't log 70,000 bytes at once and the buffer is drained faster on runc.

Expected result

When running the workload on non-Kata, i.e. runc, the workload completes successfully.

Actual result

When running the workload on Kata, we get the following error:


tee: 'standard output': Resource temporarily unavailable

The workload uses tee to redirect the output of the command to both a file and stdout.

Solution

I've considered a bunch of different solutions for this issue on the Kata side:

Can we increase the size of the os.Pipe for the stdout buffer? The stdin/stdout/stderr pipes are created here https://github.com/kata-containers/agent/blob/7c2d8ab303085d0c59dcba784c22bdf168ff8961/grpc.go#L347 It sounds like the size of it in the Kata guest is 16 pages of 4096 bytes, so 65,536 bytes. See http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/pipe.7.html section "Pipe Capacity" - but the capacity can be queried and set using the fcntl(2) F_GETPIPE_SZ and F_SETPIPE_SZ operations.

Can we increase the rate at which the shim/runtime polls the agent for logs, thus not letting the buffer fill up as fast?

If there isn't a way to fix this on the Kata side, I have some solutions on the workload side that I am considering: - Ask the workload owner to upgrade their node version to a version that doesn't change the stdout blocking mode. - Ask the workload owner to decrease the verbosity of their logging - Ask the workload owner to change back stdout blocking mode after running nodejs.

Could I get some feedback/thoughts on the above?

Additional Details

Show kata-collect-data.sh details

# Meta details Running `kata-collect-data.sh` version `1.10.0 (commit ebe9677f23b574c5defacf57456d221d8ce901f2)` at `2020-02-18.06:08:47.580899329+0000`. --- Runtime is `/opt/kata/bin/kata-runtime`. # `kata-env` Output of "`/opt/kata/bin/kata-runtime kata-env`":

toml
[Meta]
  Version = "1.0.23"

[Runtime]
  Debug = false
  Trace = false
  DisableGuestSeccomp = true
  DisableNewNetNs = false
  SandboxCgroupOnly = false
  Path = "/opt/kata/bin/kata-runtime"
  [Runtime.Version]
    Semver = "1.10.0"
    Commit = "ebe9677f23b574c5defacf57456d221d8ce901f2"
    OCI = "1.0.1-dev"
  [Runtime.Config]
    Path = "/etc/kata-containers/configuration.toml"

[Hypervisor]
  MachineType = "pc"
  Version = "QEMU emulator version 4.1.0 (kata-static)\nCopyright (c) 2003-2019 Fabrice Bellard and the QEMU Project developers"
  Path = "/opt/kata/bin/qemu-virtiofs-system-x86_64"
  BlockDeviceDriver = "virtio-scsi"
  EntropySource = "/dev/urandom"
  Msize9p = 8192
  MemorySlots = 10
  Debug = false
  UseVSock = false
  SharedFS = "virtio-9p"

[Image]
  Path = "/opt/kata/share/kata-containers/kata-containers-ubuntu-console-1.10.0-fa8f4be.img"

[Kernel]
  Path = "/opt/kata/share/kata-containers/vmlinuz-4.19.86-60"
  Parameters = "systemd.unit=kata-containers.target systemd.mask=systemd-networkd.service systemd.mask=systemd-networkd.socket vsyscall=emulate agent.hotplug_timeout=10s"

[Initrd]
  Path = ""

[Proxy]
  Type = "kataProxy"
  Version = "kata-proxy version 1.10.0-bbc3f73a3b003f57c20f4dad4bffb22580864926"
  Path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-proxy"
  Debug = false

[Shim]
  Type = "kataShim"
  Version = "kata-shim version 1.10.0-6db555216f68a14b68ce64713083c5f5b4684aea"
  Path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-shim"
  Debug = false

[Agent]
  Type = "kata"
  Debug = false
  Trace = false
  TraceMode = ""
  TraceType = ""

[Host]
  Kernel = "4.19.78-coreos"
  Architecture = "amd64"
  VMContainerCapable = true
  SupportVSocks = true
  [Host.Distro]
    Name = "Container Linux by CoreOS"
    Version = "2247.5.0"
  [Host.CPU]
    Vendor = "GenuineIntel"
    Model = "Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8175M CPU @ 2.50GHz"

[Netmon]
  Version = "kata-netmon version 1.10.0"
  Path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-netmon"
  Debug = false
  Enable = false
--- # Runtime config files ## Runtime default config files

/etc/kata-containers/configuration.toml
/opt/kata/share/defaults/kata-containers/configuration.toml
## Runtime config file contents Output of "`cat "/etc/kata-containers/configuration.toml"`":
toml
# Copyright (c) 2017-2019 Intel Corporation
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0
#

# XXX: WARNING: this file is auto-generated.
# XXX:
# XXX: Source file: "cli/config/configuration-qemu.toml.in"
# XXX: Project:
# XXX:   Name: Kata Containers
# XXX:   Type: kata

[hypervisor.qemu]
path = "/opt/kata/bin/qemu-virtiofs-system-x86_64"
kernel = "/opt/kata/share/kata-containers/vmlinuz.container"
image = "/opt/kata/share/kata-containers/kata-containers.img"
machine_type = "pc"

# Optional space-separated list of options to pass to the guest kernel.
# For example, use `kernel_params = "vsyscall=emulate"` if you are having
# trouble running pre-2.15 glibc.
#
# WARNING: - any parameter specified here will take priority over the default
# parameter value of the same name used to start the virtual machine.
# Do not set values here unless you understand the impact of doing so as you
# may stop the virtual machine from booting.
# To see the list of default parameters, enable hypervisor debug, create a
# container and look for 'default-kernel-parameters' log entries.
kernel_params = "vsyscall=emulate agent.hotplug_timeout=10s"

# Path to the firmware.
# If you want that qemu uses the default firmware leave this option empty
firmware = ""

# Machine accelerators
# comma-separated list of machine accelerators to pass to the hypervisor.
# For example, `machine_accelerators = "nosmm,nosmbus,nosata,nopit,static-prt,nofw"`
machine_accelerators=""

# Default number of vCPUs per SB/VM:
# unspecified or 0                --> will be set to 1
# < 0                             --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores
# > 0 <= number of physical cores --> will be set to the specified number
# > number of physical cores      --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores
default_vcpus = 8

# Default maximum number of vCPUs per SB/VM:
# unspecified or == 0             --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores or to the maximum number
#                                     of vCPUs supported by KVM if that number is exceeded
# > 0 <= number of physical cores --> will be set to the specified number
# > number of physical cores      --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores or to the maximum number
#                                     of vCPUs supported by KVM if that number is exceeded
# WARNING: Depending of the architecture, the maximum number of vCPUs supported by KVM is used when
# the actual number of physical cores is greater than it.
# WARNING: Be aware that this value impacts the virtual machine's memory footprint and CPU
# the hotplug functionality. For example, `default_maxvcpus = 240` specifies that until 240 vCPUs
# can be added to a SB/VM, but the memory footprint will be big. Another example, with
# `default_maxvcpus = 8` the memory footprint will be small, but 8 will be the maximum number of
# vCPUs supported by the SB/VM. In general, we recommend that you do not edit this variable,
# unless you know what are you doing.
default_maxvcpus = 8

# Bridges can be used to hot plug devices.
# Limitations:
# * Currently only pci bridges are supported
# * Until 30 devices per bridge can be hot plugged.
# * Until 5 PCI bridges can be cold plugged per VM.
#   This limitation could be a bug in qemu or in the kernel
# Default number of bridges per SB/VM:
# unspecified or 0   --> will be set to 1
# > 1 <= 5           --> will be set to the specified number
# > 5                --> will be set to 5
default_bridges = 1

# Default memory size in MiB for SB/VM.
# If unspecified then it will be set 2048 MiB.
default_memory = 2048
#
# Default memory slots per SB/VM.
# If unspecified then it will be set 10.
# This is will determine the times that memory will be hotadded to sandbox/VM.
#memory_slots = 10

# The size in MiB will be plused to max memory of hypervisor.
# It is the memory address space for the NVDIMM devie.
# If set block storage driver (block_device_driver) to "nvdimm",
# should set memory_offset to the size of block device.
# Default 0
#memory_offset = 0

# Disable block device from being used for a container's rootfs.
# In case of a storage driver like devicemapper where a container's
# root file system is backed by a block device, the block device is passed
# directly to the hypervisor for performance reasons.
# This flag prevents the block device from being passed to the hypervisor,
# 9pfs is used instead to pass the rootfs.
disable_block_device_use = false

# Shared file system type:
#   - virtio-9p (default)
#   - virtio-fs
shared_fs = "virtio-9p"

# Path to vhost-user-fs daemon.
virtio_fs_daemon = "/opt/kata/bin/virtiofsd"

# Default size of DAX cache in MiB
virtio_fs_cache_size = 1024

# Extra args for virtiofsd daemon
#
# Format example:
#   ["-o", "arg1=xxx,arg2", "-o", "hello world", "--arg3=yyy"]
#
# see `virtiofsd -h` for possible options.
virtio_fs_extra_args = []

# Cache mode:
#
#  - none
#    Metadata, data, and pathname lookup are not cached in guest. They are
#    always fetched from host and any changes are immediately pushed to host.
#
#  - auto
#    Metadata and pathname lookup cache expires after a configured amount of
#    time (default is 1 second). Data is cached while the file is open (close
#    to open consistency).
#
#  - always
#    Metadata, data, and pathname lookup are cached in guest and never expire.
virtio_fs_cache = "none"

# Block storage driver to be used for the hypervisor in case the container
# rootfs is backed by a block device. This is virtio-scsi, virtio-blk
# or nvdimm.
block_device_driver = "virtio-scsi"

# Specifies cache-related options will be set to block devices or not.
# Default false
#block_device_cache_set = true

# Specifies cache-related options for block devices.
# Denotes whether use of O_DIRECT (bypass the host page cache) is enabled.
# Default false
#block_device_cache_direct = true

# Specifies cache-related options for block devices.
# Denotes whether flush requests for the device are ignored.
# Default false
#block_device_cache_noflush = true

# Enable iothreads (data-plane) to be used. This causes IO to be
# handled in a separate IO thread. This is currently only implemented
# for SCSI.
#
enable_iothreads = false

# Enable pre allocation of VM RAM, default false
# Enabling this will result in lower container density
# as all of the memory will be allocated and locked
# This is useful when you want to reserve all the memory
# upfront or in the cases where you want memory latencies
# to be very predictable
# Default false
#enable_mem_prealloc = true

# Enable huge pages for VM RAM, default false
# Enabling this will result in the VM memory
# being allocated using huge pages.
# This is useful when you want to use vhost-user network
# stacks within the container. This will automatically
# result in memory pre allocation
#enable_hugepages = true

# Enable file based guest memory support. The default is an empty string which
# will disable this feature. In the case of virtio-fs, this is enabled
# automatically and '/dev/shm' is used as the backing folder.
# This option will be ignored if VM templating is enabled.
#file_mem_backend = ""

# Enable swap of vm memory. Default false.
# The behaviour is undefined if mem_prealloc is also set to true
#enable_swap = true

# This option changes the default hypervisor and kernel parameters
# to enable debug output where available. This extra output is added
# to the proxy logs, but only when proxy debug is also enabled.
#
# Default false
#enable_debug = true

# Disable the customizations done in the runtime when it detects
# that it is running on top a VMM. This will result in the runtime
# behaving as it would when running on bare metal.
#
#disable_nesting_checks = true

# This is the msize used for 9p shares. It is the number of bytes
# used for 9p packet payload.
#msize_9p = 8192

# If true and vsocks are supported, use vsocks to communicate directly
# with the agent and no proxy is started, otherwise use unix
# sockets and start a proxy to communicate with the agent.
# Default false
#use_vsock = true

# VFIO devices are hotplugged on a bridge by default.
# Enable hotplugging on root bus. This may be required for devices with
# a large PCI bar, as this is a current limitation with hotplugging on
# a bridge. This value is valid for "pc" machine type.
# Default false
#hotplug_vfio_on_root_bus = true

# If vhost-net backend for virtio-net is not desired, set to true. Default is false, which trades off
# security (vhost-net runs ring0) for network I/O performance.
#disable_vhost_net = true

#
# Default entropy source.
# The path to a host source of entropy (including a real hardware RNG)
# /dev/urandom and /dev/random are two main options.
# Be aware that /dev/random is a blocking source of entropy.  If the host
# runs out of entropy, the VMs boot time will increase leading to get startup
# timeouts.
# The source of entropy /dev/urandom is non-blocking and provides a
# generally acceptable source of entropy. It should work well for pretty much
# all practical purposes.
#entropy_source= "/dev/urandom"

# Path to OCI hook binaries in the *guest rootfs*.
# This does not affect host-side hooks which must instead be added to
# the OCI spec passed to the runtime.
#
# You can create a rootfs with hooks by customizing the osbuilder scripts:
# https://github.com/kata-containers/osbuilder
#
# Hooks must be stored in a subdirectory of guest_hook_path according to their
# hook type, i.e. "guest_hook_path/{prestart,postart,poststop}".
# The agent will scan these directories for executable files and add them, in
# lexicographical order, to the lifecycle of the guest container.
# Hooks are executed in the runtime namespace of the guest. See the official documentation:
# https://github.com/opencontainers/runtime-spec/blob/v1.0.1/config.md#posix-platform-hooks
# Warnings will be logged if any error is encountered will scanning for hooks,
# but it will not abort container execution.
#guest_hook_path = "/usr/share/oci/hooks"

[factory]
# VM templating support. Once enabled, new VMs are created from template
# using vm cloning. They will share the same initial kernel, initramfs and
# agent memory by mapping it readonly. It helps speeding up new container
# creation and saves a lot of memory if there are many kata containers running
# on the same host.
#
# When disabled, new VMs are created from scratch.
#
# Note: Requires "initrd=" to be set ("image=" is not supported).
#
# Default false
#enable_template = true

# Specifies the path of template.
#
# Default "/run/vc/vm/template"
#template_path = "/run/vc/vm/template"

# The number of caches of VMCache:
# unspecified or == 0   --> VMCache is disabled
# > 0                   --> will be set to the specified number
#
# VMCache is a function that creates VMs as caches before using it.
# It helps speed up new container creation.
# The function consists of a server and some clients communicating
# through Unix socket.  The protocol is gRPC in protocols/cache/cache.proto.
# The VMCache server will create some VMs and cache them by factory cache.
# It will convert the VM to gRPC format and transport it when gets
# requestion from clients.
# Factory grpccache is the VMCache client.  It will request gRPC format
# VM and convert it back to a VM.  If VMCache function is enabled,
# kata-runtime will request VM from factory grpccache when it creates
# a new sandbox.
#
# Default 0
#vm_cache_number = 0

# Specify the address of the Unix socket that is used by VMCache.
#
# Default /var/run/kata-containers/cache.sock
#vm_cache_endpoint = "/var/run/kata-containers/cache.sock"

[proxy.kata]
path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-proxy"

# If enabled, proxy messages will be sent to the system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

[shim.kata]
path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-shim"

# If enabled, shim messages will be sent to the system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

# If enabled, the shim will create opentracing.io traces and spans.
# (See https://www.jaegertracing.io/docs/getting-started).
#
# Note: By default, the shim runs in a separate network namespace. Therefore,
# to allow it to send trace details to the Jaeger agent running on the host,
# it is necessary to set 'disable_new_netns=true' so that it runs in the host
# network namespace.
#
# (default: disabled)
#enable_tracing = true

[agent.kata]
# If enabled, make the agent display debug-level messages.
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

# Enable agent tracing.
#
# If enabled, the default trace mode is "dynamic" and the
# default trace type is "isolated". The trace mode and type are set
# explicity with the `trace_type=` and `trace_mode=` options.
#
# Notes:
#
# - Tracing is ONLY enabled when `enable_tracing` is set: explicitly
#   setting `trace_mode=` and/or `trace_type=` without setting `enable_tracing`
#   will NOT activate agent tracing.
#
# - See https://github.com/kata-containers/agent/blob/master/TRACING.md for
#   full details.
#
# (default: disabled)
#enable_tracing = true
#
#trace_mode = "dynamic"
#trace_type = "isolated"

# Comma separated list of kernel modules and their parameters.
# These modules will be loaded in the guest kernel using modprobe(8).
# The following example can be used to load two kernel modules with parameters
#  - kernel_modules=["e1000e InterruptThrottleRate=3000,3000,3000 EEE=1", "i915 enable_ppgtt=0"]
# The first word is considered as the module name and the rest as its parameters.
# Container will not be started when:
#  * A kernel module is specified and the modprobe command is not installed in the guest
#    or it fails loading the module.
#  * The module is not available in the guest or it doesn't met the guest kernel
#    requirements, like architecture and version.
#
kernel_modules=[]


[netmon]
# If enabled, the network monitoring process gets started when the
# sandbox is created. This allows for the detection of some additional
# network being added to the existing network namespace, after the
# sandbox has been created.
# (default: disabled)
#enable_netmon = true

# Specify the path to the netmon binary.
path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-netmon"

# If enabled, netmon messages will be sent to the system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

[runtime]
# If enabled, the runtime will log additional debug messages to the
# system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true
#
# Internetworking model
# Determines how the VM should be connected to the
# the container network interface
# Options:
#
#   - macvtap
#     Used when the Container network interface can be bridged using
#     macvtap.
#
#   - none
#     Used when customize network. Only creates a tap device. No veth pair.
#
#   - tcfilter
#     Uses tc filter rules to redirect traffic from the network interface
#     provided by plugin to a tap interface connected to the VM.
#
internetworking_model="tcfilter"

# disable guest seccomp
# Determines whether container seccomp profiles are passed to the virtual
# machine and applied by the kata agent. If set to true, seccomp is not applied
# within the guest
# (default: true)
disable_guest_seccomp=true

# If enabled, the runtime will create opentracing.io traces and spans.
# (See https://www.jaegertracing.io/docs/getting-started).
# (default: disabled)
#enable_tracing = true

# If enabled, the runtime will not create a network namespace for shim and hypervisor processes.
# This option may have some potential impacts to your host. It should only be used when you know what you're doing.
# `disable_new_netns` conflicts with `enable_netmon`
# `disable_new_netns` conflicts with `internetworking_model=tcfilter` and `internetworking_model=macvtap`. It works only
# with `internetworking_model=none`. The tap device will be in the host network namespace and can connect to a bridge
# (like OVS) directly.
# If you are using docker, `disable_new_netns` only works with `docker run --net=none`
# (default: false)
#disable_new_netns = true

# if enabled, the runtime will add all the kata processes inside one dedicated cgroup.
# The container cgroups in the host are not created, just one single cgroup per sandbox.
# The sandbox cgroup is not constrained by the runtime
# The runtime caller is free to restrict or collect cgroup stats of the overall Kata sandbox.
# The sandbox cgroup path is the parent cgroup of a container with the PodSandbox annotation.
# See: https://godoc.org/github.com/kata-containers/runtime/virtcontainers#ContainerType
sandbox_cgroup_only=false

# Enabled experimental feature list, format: ["a", "b"].
# Experimental features are features not stable enough for production,
# They may break compatibility, and are prepared for a big version bump.
# Supported experimental features:
# 1. "newstore": new persist storage driver which breaks backward compatibility,
#               expected to move out of experimental in 2.0.0.
# (default: [])
experimental=[]
Output of "`cat "/opt/kata/share/defaults/kata-containers/configuration.toml"`":
toml
# Copyright (c) 2017-2019 Intel Corporation
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0
#

# XXX: WARNING: this file is auto-generated.
# XXX:
# XXX: Source file: "cli/config/configuration-qemu.toml.in"
# XXX: Project:
# XXX:   Name: Kata Containers
# XXX:   Type: kata

[hypervisor.qemu]
path = "/opt/kata/bin/qemu-system-x86_64"
kernel = "/opt/kata/share/kata-containers/vmlinuz.container"
image = "/opt/kata/share/kata-containers/kata-containers.img"
machine_type = "pc"

# Optional space-separated list of options to pass to the guest kernel.
# For example, use `kernel_params = "vsyscall=emulate"` if you are having
# trouble running pre-2.15 glibc.
#
# WARNING: - any parameter specified here will take priority over the default
# parameter value of the same name used to start the virtual machine.
# Do not set values here unless you understand the impact of doing so as you
# may stop the virtual machine from booting.
# To see the list of default parameters, enable hypervisor debug, create a
# container and look for 'default-kernel-parameters' log entries.
kernel_params = ""

# Path to the firmware.
# If you want that qemu uses the default firmware leave this option empty
firmware = ""

# Machine accelerators
# comma-separated list of machine accelerators to pass to the hypervisor.
# For example, `machine_accelerators = "nosmm,nosmbus,nosata,nopit,static-prt,nofw"`
machine_accelerators=""

# Default number of vCPUs per SB/VM:
# unspecified or 0                --> will be set to 1
# < 0                             --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores
# > 0 <= number of physical cores --> will be set to the specified number
# > number of physical cores      --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores
default_vcpus = 1

# Default maximum number of vCPUs per SB/VM:
# unspecified or == 0             --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores or to the maximum number
#                                     of vCPUs supported by KVM if that number is exceeded
# > 0 <= number of physical cores --> will be set to the specified number
# > number of physical cores      --> will be set to the actual number of physical cores or to the maximum number
#                                     of vCPUs supported by KVM if that number is exceeded
# WARNING: Depending of the architecture, the maximum number of vCPUs supported by KVM is used when
# the actual number of physical cores is greater than it.
# WARNING: Be aware that this value impacts the virtual machine's memory footprint and CPU
# the hotplug functionality. For example, `default_maxvcpus = 240` specifies that until 240 vCPUs
# can be added to a SB/VM, but the memory footprint will be big. Another example, with
# `default_maxvcpus = 8` the memory footprint will be small, but 8 will be the maximum number of
# vCPUs supported by the SB/VM. In general, we recommend that you do not edit this variable,
# unless you know what are you doing.
default_maxvcpus = 0

# Bridges can be used to hot plug devices.
# Limitations:
# * Currently only pci bridges are supported
# * Until 30 devices per bridge can be hot plugged.
# * Until 5 PCI bridges can be cold plugged per VM.
#   This limitation could be a bug in qemu or in the kernel
# Default number of bridges per SB/VM:
# unspecified or 0   --> will be set to 1
# > 1 <= 5           --> will be set to the specified number
# > 5                --> will be set to 5
default_bridges = 1

# Default memory size in MiB for SB/VM.
# If unspecified then it will be set 2048 MiB.
default_memory = 2048
#
# Default memory slots per SB/VM.
# If unspecified then it will be set 10.
# This is will determine the times that memory will be hotadded to sandbox/VM.
#memory_slots = 10

# The size in MiB will be plused to max memory of hypervisor.
# It is the memory address space for the NVDIMM devie.
# If set block storage driver (block_device_driver) to "nvdimm",
# should set memory_offset to the size of block device.
# Default 0
#memory_offset = 0

# Disable block device from being used for a container's rootfs.
# In case of a storage driver like devicemapper where a container's 
# root file system is backed by a block device, the block device is passed
# directly to the hypervisor for performance reasons. 
# This flag prevents the block device from being passed to the hypervisor, 
# 9pfs is used instead to pass the rootfs.
disable_block_device_use = false

# Shared file system type:
#   - virtio-9p (default)
#   - virtio-fs
shared_fs = "virtio-9p"

# Path to vhost-user-fs daemon.
virtio_fs_daemon = "/opt/kata/bin/virtiofsd"

# Default size of DAX cache in MiB
virtio_fs_cache_size = 1024

# Extra args for virtiofsd daemon
#
# Format example:
#   ["-o", "arg1=xxx,arg2", "-o", "hello world", "--arg3=yyy"]
#
# see `virtiofsd -h` for possible options.
virtio_fs_extra_args = []

# Cache mode:
#
#  - none
#    Metadata, data, and pathname lookup are not cached in guest. They are
#    always fetched from host and any changes are immediately pushed to host.
#
#  - auto
#    Metadata and pathname lookup cache expires after a configured amount of
#    time (default is 1 second). Data is cached while the file is open (close
#    to open consistency).
#
#  - always
#    Metadata, data, and pathname lookup are cached in guest and never expire.
virtio_fs_cache = "always"

# Block storage driver to be used for the hypervisor in case the container
# rootfs is backed by a block device. This is virtio-scsi, virtio-blk
# or nvdimm.
block_device_driver = "virtio-scsi"

# Specifies cache-related options will be set to block devices or not.
# Default false
#block_device_cache_set = true

# Specifies cache-related options for block devices.
# Denotes whether use of O_DIRECT (bypass the host page cache) is enabled.
# Default false
#block_device_cache_direct = true

# Specifies cache-related options for block devices.
# Denotes whether flush requests for the device are ignored.
# Default false
#block_device_cache_noflush = true

# Enable iothreads (data-plane) to be used. This causes IO to be
# handled in a separate IO thread. This is currently only implemented
# for SCSI.
#
enable_iothreads = false

# Enable pre allocation of VM RAM, default false
# Enabling this will result in lower container density
# as all of the memory will be allocated and locked
# This is useful when you want to reserve all the memory
# upfront or in the cases where you want memory latencies
# to be very predictable
# Default false
#enable_mem_prealloc = true

# Enable huge pages for VM RAM, default false
# Enabling this will result in the VM memory
# being allocated using huge pages.
# This is useful when you want to use vhost-user network
# stacks within the container. This will automatically 
# result in memory pre allocation
#enable_hugepages = true

# Enable file based guest memory support. The default is an empty string which
# will disable this feature. In the case of virtio-fs, this is enabled
# automatically and '/dev/shm' is used as the backing folder.
# This option will be ignored if VM templating is enabled.
#file_mem_backend = ""

# Enable swap of vm memory. Default false.
# The behaviour is undefined if mem_prealloc is also set to true
#enable_swap = true

# This option changes the default hypervisor and kernel parameters
# to enable debug output where available. This extra output is added
# to the proxy logs, but only when proxy debug is also enabled.
# 
# Default false
#enable_debug = true

# Disable the customizations done in the runtime when it detects
# that it is running on top a VMM. This will result in the runtime
# behaving as it would when running on bare metal.
# 
#disable_nesting_checks = true

# This is the msize used for 9p shares. It is the number of bytes 
# used for 9p packet payload.
#msize_9p = 8192

# If true and vsocks are supported, use vsocks to communicate directly
# with the agent and no proxy is started, otherwise use unix
# sockets and start a proxy to communicate with the agent.
# Default false
#use_vsock = true

# VFIO devices are hotplugged on a bridge by default. 
# Enable hotplugging on root bus. This may be required for devices with
# a large PCI bar, as this is a current limitation with hotplugging on 
# a bridge. This value is valid for "pc" machine type.
# Default false
#hotplug_vfio_on_root_bus = true

# If vhost-net backend for virtio-net is not desired, set to true. Default is false, which trades off
# security (vhost-net runs ring0) for network I/O performance. 
#disable_vhost_net = true

#
# Default entropy source.
# The path to a host source of entropy (including a real hardware RNG)
# /dev/urandom and /dev/random are two main options.
# Be aware that /dev/random is a blocking source of entropy.  If the host
# runs out of entropy, the VMs boot time will increase leading to get startup
# timeouts.
# The source of entropy /dev/urandom is non-blocking and provides a
# generally acceptable source of entropy. It should work well for pretty much
# all practical purposes.
#entropy_source= "/dev/urandom"

# Path to OCI hook binaries in the *guest rootfs*.
# This does not affect host-side hooks which must instead be added to
# the OCI spec passed to the runtime.
#
# You can create a rootfs with hooks by customizing the osbuilder scripts:
# https://github.com/kata-containers/osbuilder
#
# Hooks must be stored in a subdirectory of guest_hook_path according to their
# hook type, i.e. "guest_hook_path/{prestart,postart,poststop}".
# The agent will scan these directories for executable files and add them, in
# lexicographical order, to the lifecycle of the guest container.
# Hooks are executed in the runtime namespace of the guest. See the official documentation:
# https://github.com/opencontainers/runtime-spec/blob/v1.0.1/config.md#posix-platform-hooks
# Warnings will be logged if any error is encountered will scanning for hooks,
# but it will not abort container execution.
#guest_hook_path = "/usr/share/oci/hooks"

[factory]
# VM templating support. Once enabled, new VMs are created from template
# using vm cloning. They will share the same initial kernel, initramfs and
# agent memory by mapping it readonly. It helps speeding up new container
# creation and saves a lot of memory if there are many kata containers running
# on the same host.
#
# When disabled, new VMs are created from scratch.
#
# Note: Requires "initrd=" to be set ("image=" is not supported).
#
# Default false
#enable_template = true

# Specifies the path of template.
#
# Default "/run/vc/vm/template"
#template_path = "/run/vc/vm/template"

# The number of caches of VMCache:
# unspecified or == 0   --> VMCache is disabled
# > 0                   --> will be set to the specified number
#
# VMCache is a function that creates VMs as caches before using it.
# It helps speed up new container creation.
# The function consists of a server and some clients communicating
# through Unix socket.  The protocol is gRPC in protocols/cache/cache.proto.
# The VMCache server will create some VMs and cache them by factory cache.
# It will convert the VM to gRPC format and transport it when gets
# requestion from clients.
# Factory grpccache is the VMCache client.  It will request gRPC format
# VM and convert it back to a VM.  If VMCache function is enabled,
# kata-runtime will request VM from factory grpccache when it creates
# a new sandbox.
#
# Default 0
#vm_cache_number = 0

# Specify the address of the Unix socket that is used by VMCache.
#
# Default /var/run/kata-containers/cache.sock
#vm_cache_endpoint = "/var/run/kata-containers/cache.sock"

[proxy.kata]
path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-proxy"

# If enabled, proxy messages will be sent to the system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

[shim.kata]
path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-shim"

# If enabled, shim messages will be sent to the system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

# If enabled, the shim will create opentracing.io traces and spans.
# (See https://www.jaegertracing.io/docs/getting-started).
#
# Note: By default, the shim runs in a separate network namespace. Therefore,
# to allow it to send trace details to the Jaeger agent running on the host,
# it is necessary to set 'disable_new_netns=true' so that it runs in the host
# network namespace.
#
# (default: disabled)
#enable_tracing = true

[agent.kata]
# If enabled, make the agent display debug-level messages.
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

# Enable agent tracing.
#
# If enabled, the default trace mode is "dynamic" and the
# default trace type is "isolated". The trace mode and type are set
# explicity with the `trace_type=` and `trace_mode=` options.
#
# Notes:
#
# - Tracing is ONLY enabled when `enable_tracing` is set: explicitly
#   setting `trace_mode=` and/or `trace_type=` without setting `enable_tracing`
#   will NOT activate agent tracing.
#
# - See https://github.com/kata-containers/agent/blob/master/TRACING.md for
#   full details.
#
# (default: disabled)
#enable_tracing = true
#
#trace_mode = "dynamic"
#trace_type = "isolated"

# Comma separated list of kernel modules and their parameters.
# These modules will be loaded in the guest kernel using modprobe(8).
# The following example can be used to load two kernel modules with parameters
#  - kernel_modules=["e1000e InterruptThrottleRate=3000,3000,3000 EEE=1", "i915 enable_ppgtt=0"]
# The first word is considered as the module name and the rest as its parameters.
# Container will not be started when:
#  * A kernel module is specified and the modprobe command is not installed in the guest
#    or it fails loading the module.
#  * The module is not available in the guest or it doesn't met the guest kernel
#    requirements, like architecture and version.
#
kernel_modules=[]


[netmon]
# If enabled, the network monitoring process gets started when the
# sandbox is created. This allows for the detection of some additional
# network being added to the existing network namespace, after the
# sandbox has been created.
# (default: disabled)
#enable_netmon = true

# Specify the path to the netmon binary.
path = "/opt/kata/libexec/kata-containers/kata-netmon"

# If enabled, netmon messages will be sent to the system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true

[runtime]
# If enabled, the runtime will log additional debug messages to the
# system log
# (default: disabled)
#enable_debug = true
#
# Internetworking model
# Determines how the VM should be connected to the
# the container network interface
# Options:
#
#   - macvtap
#     Used when the Container network interface can be bridged using
#     macvtap.
#
#   - none
#     Used when customize network. Only creates a tap device. No veth pair.
#
#   - tcfilter
#     Uses tc filter rules to redirect traffic from the network interface
#     provided by plugin to a tap interface connected to the VM.
#
internetworking_model="tcfilter"

# disable guest seccomp
# Determines whether container seccomp profiles are passed to the virtual
# machine and applied by the kata agent. If set to true, seccomp is not applied
# within the guest
# (default: true)
disable_guest_seccomp=true

# If enabled, the runtime will create opentracing.io traces and spans.
# (See https://www.jaegertracing.io/docs/getting-started).
# (default: disabled)
#enable_tracing = true

# If enabled, the runtime will not create a network namespace for shim and hypervisor processes.
# This option may have some potential impacts to your host. It should only be used when you know what you're doing.
# `disable_new_netns` conflicts with `enable_netmon`
# `disable_new_netns` conflicts with `internetworking_model=tcfilter` and `internetworking_model=macvtap`. It works only
# with `internetworking_model=none`. The tap device will be in the host network namespace and can connect to a bridge
# (like OVS) directly.
# If you are using docker, `disable_new_netns` only works with `docker run --net=none`
# (default: false)
#disable_new_netns = true

# if enabled, the runtime will add all the kata processes inside one dedicated cgroup.
# The container cgroups in the host are not created, just one single cgroup per sandbox.
# The sandbox cgroup is not constrained by the runtime
# The runtime caller is free to restrict or collect cgroup stats of the overall Kata sandbox.
# The sandbox cgroup path is the parent cgroup of a container with the PodSandbox annotation.
# See: https://godoc.org/github.com/kata-containers/runtime/virtcontainers#ContainerType
sandbox_cgroup_only=false

# Enabled experimental feature list, format: ["a", "b"].
# Experimental features are features not stable enough for production,
# They may break compatibility, and are prepared for a big version bump.
# Supported experimental features:
# 1. "newstore": new persist storage driver which breaks backward compatibility,
#               expected to move out of experimental in 2.0.0.
# (default: [])
experimental=[]
Config file `/usr/share/defaults/kata-containers/configuration.toml` not found --- # KSM throttler ## version Output of "` --version`":

./kata-collect-data.sh: line 178: --version: command not found
## systemd service # Image details
yaml
---
osbuilder:
  url: "https://github.com/kata-containers/osbuilder"
  version: "unknown"
rootfs-creation-time: "2020-02-18T03:01:28.177670192+0000Z"
description: "osbuilder rootfs"
file-format-version: "0.0.2"
architecture: "x86_64"
base-distro:
  name: "bionic"
  version: "18.04"
  packages:
    default:
      - "systemd,iptables,init,chrony,kmod,fuse,bash,sysstat,htop"
    extra:
      - "bash"
      - "fuse"
      - "htop"
      - "sysstat"
agent:
  url: "https://github.com/kata-containers/agent"
  name: "kata-agent"
  version: "1.10.0-a8007c2969e839b584627d1a7db4cac13af908a6"
  agent-is-init-daemon: "no"
--- # Initrd details No initrd --- # Logfiles ## Runtime logs No recent runtime problems found in system journal. ## Proxy logs No recent proxy problems found in system journal. ## Shim logs No recent shim problems found in system journal. ## Throttler logs No recent throttler problems found in system journal. --- # Container manager details Have `docker` ## Docker Output of "`docker version`":

Client: Docker Engine - Community
 Version:           18.09.7
 API version:       1.39
 Go version:        go1.10.8
 Git commit:        2d0083d
 Built:             Thu Jun 27 17:54:15 2019
 OS/Arch:           linux/amd64
 Experimental:      false
Cannot connect to the Docker daemon at unix:///var/run/docker.sock. Is the docker daemon running?
Output of "`docker info`":

Cannot connect to the Docker daemon at unix:///var/run/docker.sock. Is the docker daemon running?
Output of "`systemctl show docker`":

Restart=no
NotifyAccess=none
RestartUSec=100ms
TimeoutStartUSec=1min 30s
TimeoutStopUSec=1min 30s
RuntimeMaxUSec=infinity
WatchdogUSec=0
WatchdogTimestampMonotonic=0
RootDirectoryStartOnly=no
RemainAfterExit=no
GuessMainPID=yes
MainPID=0
ControlPID=0
FileDescriptorStoreMax=0
NFileDescriptorStore=0
StatusErrno=0
Result=success
UID=[not set]
GID=[not set]
NRestarts=0
ExecMainStartTimestampMonotonic=0
ExecMainExitTimestampMonotonic=0
ExecMainPID=0
ExecMainCode=0
ExecMainStatus=0
MemoryCurrent=[not set]
CPUUsageNSec=[not set]
TasksCurrent=[not set]
IPIngressBytes=18446744073709551615
IPIngressPackets=18446744073709551615
IPEgressBytes=18446744073709551615
IPEgressPackets=18446744073709551615
Delegate=no
CPUAccounting=no
CPUWeight=[not set]
StartupCPUWeight=[not set]
CPUShares=[not set]
StartupCPUShares=[not set]
CPUQuotaPerSecUSec=infinity
IOAccounting=no
IOWeight=[not set]
StartupIOWeight=[not set]
BlockIOAccounting=no
BlockIOWeight=[not set]
StartupBlockIOWeight=[not set]
MemoryAccounting=yes
MemoryMin=0
MemoryLow=0
MemoryHigh=infinity
MemoryMax=infinity
MemorySwapMax=infinity
MemoryLimit=infinity
DevicePolicy=auto
TasksAccounting=yes
TasksMax=98303
IPAccounting=no
UMask=0022
LimitCPU=infinity
LimitCPUSoft=infinity
LimitFSIZE=infinity
LimitFSIZESoft=infinity
LimitDATA=infinity
LimitDATASoft=infinity
LimitSTACK=infinity
LimitSTACKSoft=8388608
LimitCORE=infinity
LimitCORESoft=infinity
LimitRSS=infinity
LimitRSSSoft=infinity
LimitNOFILE=1073741816
LimitNOFILESoft=1073741816
LimitAS=infinity
LimitASSoft=infinity
LimitNPROC=1546345
LimitNPROCSoft=1546345
LimitMEMLOCK=67108864
LimitMEMLOCKSoft=67108864
LimitLOCKS=infinity
LimitLOCKSSoft=infinity
LimitSIGPENDING=1546345
LimitSIGPENDINGSoft=1546345
LimitMSGQUEUE=819200
LimitMSGQUEUESoft=819200
LimitNICE=0
LimitNICESoft=0
LimitRTPRIO=0
LimitRTPRIOSoft=0
LimitRTTIME=infinity
LimitRTTIMESoft=infinity
OOMScoreAdjust=0
Nice=0
IOSchedulingClass=0
IOSchedulingPriority=0
CPUSchedulingPolicy=0
CPUSchedulingPriority=0
TimerSlackNSec=50000
CPUSchedulingResetOnFork=no
NonBlocking=no
StandardInput=null
StandardInputData=
StandardOutput=inherit
StandardError=inherit
TTYReset=no
TTYVHangup=no
TTYVTDisallocate=no
SyslogPriority=30
SyslogLevelPrefix=yes
SyslogLevel=6
SyslogFacility=3
LogLevelMax=-1
LogRateLimitIntervalUSec=0
LogRateLimitBurst=0
SecureBits=0
CapabilityBoundingSet=cap_chown cap_dac_override cap_dac_read_search cap_fowner cap_fsetid cap_kill cap_setgid cap_setuid cap_setpcap cap_linux_immutable cap_net_bind_service cap_net_broadcast cap_net_admin cap_net_raw cap_ipc_lock cap_ipc_owner cap_sys_module cap_sys_rawio cap_sys_chroot cap_sys_ptrace cap_sys_pacct cap_sys_admin cap_sys_boot cap_sys_nice cap_sys_resource cap_sys_time cap_sys_tty_config cap_mknod cap_lease cap_audit_write cap_audit_control cap_setfcap cap_mac_override cap_mac_admin cap_syslog cap_wake_alarm cap_block_suspend
AmbientCapabilities=
DynamicUser=no
RemoveIPC=no
MountFlags=
PrivateTmp=no
PrivateDevices=no
ProtectKernelTunables=no
ProtectKernelModules=no
ProtectControlGroups=no
PrivateNetwork=no
PrivateUsers=no
PrivateMounts=no
ProtectHome=no
ProtectSystem=no
SameProcessGroup=no
UtmpMode=init
IgnoreSIGPIPE=yes
NoNewPrivileges=no
SystemCallErrorNumber=0
LockPersonality=no
RuntimeDirectoryPreserve=no
RuntimeDirectoryMode=0755
StateDirectoryMode=0755
CacheDirectoryMode=0755
LogsDirectoryMode=0755
ConfigurationDirectoryMode=0755
MemoryDenyWriteExecute=no
RestrictRealtime=no
RestrictNamespaces=no
MountAPIVFS=no
KeyringMode=private
KillMode=control-group
KillSignal=15
FinalKillSignal=9
SendSIGKILL=yes
SendSIGHUP=no
WatchdogSignal=6
Id=docker.service
Names=docker.service
ConsistsOf=docker.socket
After=docker.socket
TriggeredBy=docker.socket
Description=docker.service
LoadState=masked
ActiveState=inactive
SubState=dead
FragmentPath=/dev/null
UnitFileState=masked
StateChangeTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:29 UTC
StateChangeTimestampMonotonic=58439260
InactiveExitTimestampMonotonic=0
ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic=0
ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic=0
InactiveEnterTimestampMonotonic=0
CanStart=no
CanStop=yes
CanReload=no
CanIsolate=no
StopWhenUnneeded=no
RefuseManualStart=no
RefuseManualStop=no
AllowIsolate=no
DefaultDependencies=yes
OnFailureJobMode=replace
IgnoreOnIsolate=no
NeedDaemonReload=no
JobTimeoutUSec=infinity
JobRunningTimeoutUSec=infinity
JobTimeoutAction=none
ConditionResult=no
AssertResult=no
ConditionTimestampMonotonic=0
AssertTimestampMonotonic=0
LoadError=org.freedesktop.systemd1.UnitMasked "Unit docker.service is masked."
Transient=no
Perpetual=no
StartLimitIntervalUSec=10s
StartLimitBurst=5
StartLimitAction=none
FailureAction=none
FailureActionExitStatus=-1
SuccessAction=none
SuccessActionExitStatus=-1
CollectMode=inactive
No `kubectl` No `crio` Have `containerd` ## containerd Output of "`containerd --version`":

containerd github.com/containerd/containerd v1.3.0 36cf5b690dcc00ff0f34ff7799209050c3d0c59a
Output of "`systemctl show containerd`":

Type=simple
Restart=always
NotifyAccess=none
RestartUSec=5s
TimeoutStartUSec=1min 30s
TimeoutStopUSec=1min 30s
RuntimeMaxUSec=infinity
WatchdogUSec=0
WatchdogTimestampMonotonic=0
RootDirectoryStartOnly=no
RemainAfterExit=no
GuessMainPID=yes
MainPID=3389
ControlPID=0
FileDescriptorStoreMax=0
NFileDescriptorStore=0
StatusErrno=0
Result=success
UID=[not set]
GID=[not set]
NRestarts=0
ExecMainStartTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:35 UTC
ExecMainStartTimestampMonotonic=63791216
ExecMainExitTimestampMonotonic=0
ExecMainPID=3389
ExecMainCode=0
ExecMainStatus=0
ExecStartPre={ path=/sbin/modprobe ; argv[]=/sbin/modprobe overlay ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:33 UTC] ; stop_time=[Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:33 UTC] ; pid=3320 ; code=exited ; status=0 }
ExecStartPre={ path=/opt/bin/containerd-init.sh ; argv[]=/opt/bin/containerd-init.sh ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:33 UTC] ; stop_time=[Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:35 UTC] ; pid=3323 ; code=exited ; status=0 }
ExecStart={ path=/opt/containerd/bin/containerd ; argv[]=/opt/containerd/bin/containerd --log-level=info --config=/etc/containerd/config.toml ; ignore_errors=no ; start_time=[Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:35 UTC] ; stop_time=[n/a] ; pid=3389 ; code=(null) ; status=0/0 }
Slice=system.slice
ControlGroup=/system.slice/containerd.service
MemoryCurrent=1423679488
CPUUsageNSec=[not set]
TasksCurrent=258
IPIngressBytes=18446744073709551615
IPIngressPackets=18446744073709551615
IPEgressBytes=18446744073709551615
IPEgressPackets=18446744073709551615
Delegate=yes
DelegateControllers=cpu cpuacct io blkio memory devices pids bpf-firewall bpf-devices
CPUAccounting=no
CPUWeight=[not set]
StartupCPUWeight=[not set]
CPUShares=[not set]
StartupCPUShares=[not set]
CPUQuotaPerSecUSec=infinity
IOAccounting=no
IOWeight=[not set]
StartupIOWeight=[not set]
BlockIOAccounting=no
BlockIOWeight=[not set]
StartupBlockIOWeight=[not set]
MemoryAccounting=yes
MemoryMin=0
MemoryLow=0
MemoryHigh=infinity
MemoryMax=infinity
MemorySwapMax=infinity
MemoryLimit=infinity
DevicePolicy=auto
TasksAccounting=yes
TasksMax=98303
IPAccounting=no
UMask=0022
LimitCPU=infinity
LimitCPUSoft=infinity
LimitFSIZE=infinity
LimitFSIZESoft=infinity
LimitDATA=infinity
LimitDATASoft=infinity
LimitSTACK=infinity
LimitSTACKSoft=8388608
LimitCORE=infinity
LimitCORESoft=infinity
LimitRSS=infinity
LimitRSSSoft=infinity
LimitNOFILE=1048576
LimitNOFILESoft=1048576
LimitAS=infinity
LimitASSoft=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitNPROCSoft=infinity
LimitMEMLOCK=65536
LimitMEMLOCKSoft=65536
LimitLOCKS=infinity
LimitLOCKSSoft=infinity
LimitSIGPENDING=1546345
LimitSIGPENDINGSoft=1546345
LimitMSGQUEUE=819200
LimitMSGQUEUESoft=819200
LimitNICE=0
LimitNICESoft=0
LimitRTPRIO=0
LimitRTPRIOSoft=0
LimitRTTIME=infinity
LimitRTTIMESoft=infinity
OOMScoreAdjust=-999
Nice=0
IOSchedulingClass=0
IOSchedulingPriority=0
CPUSchedulingPolicy=0
CPUSchedulingPriority=0
TimerSlackNSec=50000
CPUSchedulingResetOnFork=no
NonBlocking=no
StandardInput=null
StandardInputData=
StandardOutput=journal
StandardError=inherit
TTYReset=no
TTYVHangup=no
TTYVTDisallocate=no
SyslogPriority=30
SyslogLevelPrefix=yes
SyslogLevel=6
SyslogFacility=3
LogLevelMax=-1
LogRateLimitIntervalUSec=0
LogRateLimitBurst=0
SecureBits=0
CapabilityBoundingSet=cap_chown cap_dac_override cap_dac_read_search cap_fowner cap_fsetid cap_kill cap_setgid cap_setuid cap_setpcap cap_linux_immutable cap_net_bind_service cap_net_broadcast cap_net_admin cap_net_raw cap_ipc_lock cap_ipc_owner cap_sys_module cap_sys_rawio cap_sys_chroot cap_sys_ptrace cap_sys_pacct cap_sys_admin cap_sys_boot cap_sys_nice cap_sys_resource cap_sys_time cap_sys_tty_config cap_mknod cap_lease cap_audit_write cap_audit_control cap_setfcap cap_mac_override cap_mac_admin cap_syslog cap_wake_alarm cap_block_suspend
AmbientCapabilities=
DynamicUser=no
RemoveIPC=no
MountFlags=
PrivateTmp=no
PrivateDevices=no
ProtectKernelTunables=no
ProtectKernelModules=no
ProtectControlGroups=no
PrivateNetwork=no
PrivateUsers=no
PrivateMounts=no
ProtectHome=no
ProtectSystem=no
SameProcessGroup=no
UtmpMode=init
IgnoreSIGPIPE=yes
NoNewPrivileges=no
SystemCallErrorNumber=0
LockPersonality=no
RuntimeDirectoryPreserve=no
RuntimeDirectoryMode=0755
StateDirectoryMode=0755
CacheDirectoryMode=0755
LogsDirectoryMode=0755
ConfigurationDirectoryMode=0755
MemoryDenyWriteExecute=no
RestrictRealtime=no
RestrictNamespaces=no
MountAPIVFS=no
KeyringMode=private
KillMode=process
KillSignal=15
FinalKillSignal=9
SendSIGKILL=yes
SendSIGHUP=no
WatchdogSignal=6
Id=containerd.service
Names=containerd.service
Requires=system.slice sysinit.target
WantedBy=multi-user.target
Conflicts=shutdown.target
Before=shutdown.target multi-user.target
After=basic.target containerd-devicemapper-init.service systemd-journald.socket system.slice sysinit.target kata-init.service network.target
Documentation=https://containerd.io
Description=containerd container runtime
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=active
SubState=running
FragmentPath=/etc/systemd/system/containerd.service
UnitFileState=enabled
UnitFilePreset=enabled
StateChangeTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:35 UTC
StateChangeTimestampMonotonic=63791268
InactiveExitTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:33 UTC
InactiveExitTimestampMonotonic=61827055
ActiveEnterTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:35 UTC
ActiveEnterTimestampMonotonic=63791268
ActiveExitTimestampMonotonic=0
InactiveEnterTimestampMonotonic=0
CanStart=yes
CanStop=yes
CanReload=no
CanIsolate=no
StopWhenUnneeded=no
RefuseManualStart=no
RefuseManualStop=no
AllowIsolate=no
DefaultDependencies=yes
OnFailureJobMode=replace
IgnoreOnIsolate=no
NeedDaemonReload=no
JobTimeoutUSec=infinity
JobRunningTimeoutUSec=infinity
JobTimeoutAction=none
ConditionResult=yes
AssertResult=yes
ConditionTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:33 UTC
ConditionTimestampMonotonic=61825499
AssertTimestamp=Tue 2020-02-18 03:29:33 UTC
AssertTimestampMonotonic=61825499
Transient=no
Perpetual=no
StartLimitIntervalUSec=10s
StartLimitBurst=5
StartLimitAction=none
FailureAction=none
FailureActionExitStatus=-1
SuccessAction=none
SuccessActionExitStatus=-1
InvocationID=8068458169b2470c9f8fb879ff6090cb
CollectMode=inactive
Output of "`cat /etc/containerd/config.toml`":

[grpc]
address = "/run/containerd/containerd.sock"
uid = 0
gid = 0

[plugins]
  [plugins.devmapper]
    pool_name = "containerd-thinpool"
    base_image_size = "32GB"

[plugins.cri]
  max_container_log_line_size = 262144

  [plugins.cri.containerd]
    snapshotter = "devmapper"

    [plugins.cri.containerd.default_runtime]
      runtime_type = "io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux"
      runtime_engine = "/usr/bin/runc"
      runtime_root = ""

    [plugins.cri.containerd.untrusted_workload_runtime]
      runtime_type = "io.containerd.kata.v2"
      privileged_without_host_devices = true
      pod_annotations = ["io.kata-containers.*"]

    [plugins.cri.containerd.runtimes]

      [plugins.cri.containerd.runtimes.kata]
        runtime_type = "io.containerd.kata.v2"
        privileged_without_host_devices = true
        pod_annotations = ["io.kata-containers.*"]
        [plugins.cri.containerd.runtimes.kata.options]
          ConfigPath = "/etc/kata-containers/configuration.toml"

      [plugins.cri.containerd.runtimes.runc]
        runtime_type = "io.containerd.runc.v1"
        [plugins.cri.containerd.runtimes.runc.options]
          BinaryName = "runc"

[plugins.linux]
  shim = "/opt/containerd/bin/containerd-shim"
  runtime = "runc"

[plugins.cri.registry]
  [plugins.cri.registry.mirrors]
    [plugins.cri.registry.mirrors."docker.io"]
       endpoint = []
--- # Packages No `dpkg` No `rpm` ---

该提问来源于开源项目:kata-containers/runtime

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15条回答

  • weixin_39637363 weixin_39637363 5月前

    Can we increase the rate at which the shim/runtime polls the agent for logs, thus not letting the buffer fill up as fast?

    we'll end up throttling the grpc channel, I'd prefer to increase the number of pages from 16 to 32, maybe the memory footprint won't be impacted too much

    have you tried changing the number of pages?

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  • weixin_39885412 weixin_39885412 5月前

    Haven't tried increasing the number of pages. I'll give that a go and report back.

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  • weixin_39646970 weixin_39646970 5月前

    Yeah, increasing the size for the pipe seems like a reasonable approach. Let us know if that works out.

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  • weixin_39885412 weixin_39885412 5月前

    So after increasing the number of pages for stdio in the Kata agent we've found that the internal workload is able to run successfully under Kata.

    I've found that 2097152 bytes to be enough for this workload.

    I used the following Kata agent patch to get this working:

    
    diff --git a/grpc.go b/grpc.go
    index ea0d7af..8f0f067 100644
    --- a/grpc.go
    +++ b/grpc.go
    @@ -49,6 +49,9 @@ const (
            libcontainerPath = "/run/libcontainer"
     )
    
    +// 2097152 bytes
    +const pipeExtendSize = 2 << 20
    +
     var (
            sysfsCPUOnlinePath          = "/sys/devices/system/cpu"
            sysfsMemOnlinePath          = "/sys/devices/system/memory"
    @@ -338,17 +341,17 @@ func buildProcess(agentProcess *pb.Process, procID string, init bool) (*process,
                    return proc, nil
            }
    
    -       rStdin, wStdin, err := os.Pipe()
    +       rStdin, wStdin, err := createPipe()
            if err != nil {
                    return nil, err
            }
    
    -       rStdout, wStdout, err := os.Pipe()
    +       rStdout, wStdout, err := createPipe()
            if err != nil {
                    return nil, err
            }
    
    -       rStderr, wStderr, err := os.Pipe()
    +       rStderr, wStderr, err := createPipe()
            if err != nil {
                    return nil, err
            }
    @@ -364,6 +367,20 @@ func buildProcess(agentProcess *pb.Process, procID string, init bool) (*process,
            return proc, nil
     }
    
    +func createPipe() (*os.File, *os.File, error) {
    +       r, w, err := os.Pipe()
    +       if err != nil {
    +               return nil, nil, err
    +       }
    +       extendPipe(r, w)
    +       return r, w, nil
    +}
    +
    +// extendPipe resizes the write side of the pipe
    +func extendPipe(r, w *os.File) {
    +       syscall.Syscall(syscall.SYS_FCNTL, w.Fd(), syscall.F_SETPIPE_SZ, uintptr(pipeExtendSize))
    +}
    +
     func (a *agentGRPC) Check(ctx context.Context, req *pb.CheckRequest) (*pb.HealthCheckResponse, error) {
            return &pb.HealthCheckResponse{Status: pb.HealthCheckResponse_SERVING}, nil
     }
    

    and the before/after:

    
    + python3 -c 'import os,sys,fcntl; res = fcntl.fcntl(sys.stdout, 1032); print(res);'
    65536
    
    
    + python3 -c 'import os,sys,fcntl; res = fcntl.fcntl(sys.stdout, 1032); print(res);'
    2097152
    

    / What are your thoughts on making this change to the upstream Kata agent?

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  • weixin_39637363 weixin_39637363 5月前

    thanks for taking the time to debug this.

    Since not all workloads require to increase the size of the pipe, may be the kata-agent should have a kernel command line option to allow users change the size of the pipe:

    • option 1: agent.pipe_size=123456789 , where the number is in bytes
    • option 2: agent.pipe_size=${shirt_size}, where ${shirt_size} can be L, XL, XXL, XXXL, internally kata-agent will have some predefined sizes for each shirt size

    what do you think ?

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  • weixin_39779975 weixin_39779975 5月前

    Haha! I love the shirt size / "OMG are those Roman numerals?" idea, but I'd vote for option 1 as it's explicit. We can always provide some "reasonable" values for the shirt-sizes in the comments in configuration.toml maybe?

    Crikey! It's well past XV o'clock, must be time for a cuppa...

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  • weixin_39646970 weixin_39646970 5月前

    -intel I realise this is not required for all workloads, but I am afraid adding yet another configuration option is just going to add to configuration bloat. (If we decide to add this, this would need to be supported as a annotation in any case to not affect all running workloads)

    Was increasing the size of the stdout pipe enough for running the workload? Or did you need to increase the stdin and stderr pipes as well?

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  • weixin_39885412 weixin_39885412 5月前

    Agree with the configuration bloat. Is there another method we can resize this without configuration?

    We only needed to increase the size of stdout and stderr.

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  • weixin_39637363 weixin_39637363 5月前

    but I am afraid adding yet another configuration option is just going to add to configuration bloat (If we decide to add this, this would need to be supported as a annotation in any case to not affect all running workloads)

    does docker support annotations?

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  • weixin_39646970 weixin_39646970 5月前

    No annotations are not supported with docker, but we can document that. Annotations will help in passing agent configuration on a per workload basis as well.

    One approach would be to detect if we are running out of space on the pipe and automatically increase the pipe size when the buffer data goes beyond a certain limit. I am not entirely sure if is doable though as I havent tried it out myself. If not, we can add the configuration as an annotation and pass that to the agent as a command-line argument. This WIP doc describes how annotations are used in Kata: https://github.com/kata-containers/documentation/blob/c855aaa83500c582afd77f9db4960dedaad142df/how-to/how-to-set-sandbox-config-kata.md

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  • weixin_39885412 weixin_39885412 5月前

    I would prefer an annotation to configure the pipe size - dynamically resizing it sounds overly complicated and have the potential for the thing that is resizing it not reacting fast enough.

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  • weixin_39646970 weixin_39646970 5月前

    Lets go with the adding an annotation.

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  • weixin_39885412 weixin_39885412 5月前

    👍 Thanks!

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  • weixin_39885412 weixin_39885412 5月前

    Does the option need to be configurable through the /etc/kata-containers/config.toml configuration file or is only through annotations fine?

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  • weixin_39873177 weixin_39873177 5月前

    Does the option need to be configurable through the /etc/kata-containers/config.toml configuration file or is only through annotations fine?

    Just annotations I think - generally we are trying to reduce the number of options in the config file :-) It's an interesting conflict - I like having the global flexibility, but documenting all the items in the config file ends up confusing end users as there are sooo many options, and they interact in moderately complex ways :-(

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