使用 awk 打印除第一个字段以外的所有内容

I have a file that looks like this:

AE  United Arab Emirates
AG  Antigua & Barbuda
AN  Netherlands Antilles
AS  American Samoa
BA  Bosnia and Herzegovina
BF  Burkina Faso
BN  Brunei Darussalam

And I 'd like to invert the order, printing first everything except $1 and then $1:

United Arab Emirates AE

How can I do the "everything except field 1" trick?

转载于:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4198138/printing-everything-except-the-first-field-with-awk

csdnceshi63
elliott.david Hi @cfisher , it can be done without a loop ang without the extra space.
6 年多之前 回复

15个回答

Assigning $1 works but it will leave a leading space: awk '{first = $1; $1 = ""; print $0, first; }'

You can also find the number of columns in NF and use that in a loop.

csdnceshi50
三生石@ For the totally lazy; here is klashxx' code.
大约 5 年之前 回复

Maybe the most concise way:

$ awk '{$(NF+1)=$1;$1=""}sub(FS,"")' infile
United Arab Emirates AE
Antigua & Barbuda AG
Netherlands Antilles AN
American Samoa AS
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Burkina Faso BF
Brunei Darussalam BN

Explanation:

$(NF+1)=$1: Generator of a "new" last field.

$1="": Set the original first field to null

sub(FS,""): After the first two actions {$(NF+1)=$1;$1=""} get rid of the first field separator by using sub. The final print is implicit.

awk '{sub($1 FS,"")}7' YourFile

Remove the first field and separator, and print the result (7 is a non zero value so printing $0).

The field separator in gawk (at least) can be a string as well as a character (it can also be a regex). If your data is consistent, then this will work:

awk -F "  " '{print $2,$1}' inputfile

That's two spaces between the double quotes.

csdnceshi74
7*4 People who land on this question get here because they want to know how to print everything but the first field (see the question title). That's how I landed here. Your answer shows how to print the first field followed by the second field. While this is probably the best solution to the OP's particular situation, it doesn't solve the general problem of how to print everything but the first field.
8 年多之前 回复
csdnceshi75
衫裤跑路 As long as the file is consistent in the use of two spaces to separate the country code and there are no other occurrences of two spaces together, my answer does address the question.
8 年多之前 回复
csdnceshi74
7*4 Best answer for the situation at hand, but, technically, this doesn't answer the question of how to print everything but the first field.
8 年多之前 回复

Let's move all the records to the next one and set the last one as the first:

$ awk '{a=$1; for (i=2; i<=NF; i++) $(i-1)=$i; $NF=a}1' file
United Arab Emirates AE
Antigua & Barbuda AG
Netherlands Antilles AN
American Samoa AS
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Burkina Faso BF
Brunei Darussalam BN

Explanation

  • a=$1 save the first value into a temporary variable.
  • for (i=2; i<=NF; i++) $(i-1)=$i save the Nth field value into the (N-1)th field.
  • $NF=a save the first value ($1) into the last field.
  • {}1 true condition to make awk perform the default action: {print $0}.

This way, if you happen to have another field separator, the result is also good:

$ cat c
AE-United-Arab-Emirates
AG-Antigua-&-Barbuda
AN-Netherlands-Antilles
AS-American-Samoa
BA-Bosnia-and-Herzegovina
BF-Burkina-Faso
BN-Brunei-Darussalam

$ awk 'BEGIN{OFS=FS="-"}{a=$1; for (i=2; i<=NF; i++) $(i-1)=$i; $NF=a}1' c
United-Arab-Emirates-AE
Antigua-&-Barbuda-AG
Netherlands-Antilles-AN
American-Samoa-AS
Bosnia-and-Herzegovina-BA
Burkina-Faso-BF
Brunei-Darussalam-BN

If you're open to a Perl solution...

perl -lane 'print join " ",@F[1..$#F,0]' file

is a simple solution with an input/output separator of one space, which produces:

United Arab Emirates AE
Antigua & Barbuda AG
Netherlands Antilles AN
American Samoa AS
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Burkina Faso BF
Brunei Darussalam BN

This next one is slightly more complex

perl -F`  ` -lane 'print join "  ",@F[1..$#F,0]' file

and assumes that the input/output separator is two spaces:

United Arab Emirates  AE
Antigua & Barbuda  AG
Netherlands Antilles  AN
American Samoa  AS
Bosnia and Herzegovina  BA
Burkina Faso  BF
Brunei Darussalam  BN

These command-line options are used:

  • -n loop around every line of the input file, do not automatically print every line

  • -l removes newlines before processing, and adds them back in afterwards

  • -a autosplit mode – split input lines into the @F array. Defaults to splitting on whitespace

  • -F autosplit modifier, in this example splits on ' ' (two spaces)

  • -e execute the following perl code

@F is the array of words in each line, indexed starting with 0
$#F is the number of words in @F
@F[1..$#F] is an array slice of element 1 through the last element
@F[1..$#F,0] is an array slice of element 1 through the last element plus element 0

A first stab at it seems to work for your particular case.

awk '{ f = $1; i = $NF; while (i <= 0); gsub(/^[A-Z][A-Z][ ][ ]/,""); print $i, f; }'
awk '{ saved = $1; $1 = ""; print substr($0, 2), saved }'

Setting the first field to "" leaves a single copy of OFS at the start of $0. Assuming that OFS is only a single character (by default, it's a single space), we can remove it with substr($0, 2). Then we append the saved copy of $1.

awk '{ tmp = $1; sub(/^[^ ]+ +/, ""); print $0, tmp }'

Option 1

There is a solution that works with some versions of awk:

awk '{ $(NF+1)=$1;$1="";$0=$0;} NF=NF ' infile.txt

Explanation:

       $(NF+1)=$1                          # add a new field equal to field 1.
                  $1=""                    # erase the contents of field 1.
                        $0=$0;} NF=NF      # force a re-calc of fields.
                                           # and use NF to promote a print.

Result:

United Arab Emirates AE
Antigua & Barbuda AG
Netherlands Antilles AN
American Samoa AS
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Burkina Faso BF
Brunei Darussalam BN

However that might fail with older versions of awk.


Option 2

awk '{ $(NF+1)=$1;$1="";sub(OFS,"");}1' infile.txt

That is:

awk '{                                      # call awk.
       $(NF+1)=$1;                          # Add one trailing field.
                  $1="";                    # Erase first field.
                        sub(OFS,"");        # remove leading OFS.
                                    }1'     # print the line.

Note that what needs to be erased is the OFS, not the FS. The line gets re-calculated when the field $1 is asigned. That changes all runs of FS to one OFS.


But even that option still fails with several delimiters, as is clearly shown by changing the OFS:

awk -v OFS=';' '{ $(NF+1)=$1;$1="";sub(OFS,"");}1' infile.txt

That line will output:

United;Arab;Emirates;AE
Antigua;&;Barbuda;AG
Netherlands;Antilles;AN
American;Samoa;AS
Bosnia;and;Herzegovina;BA
Burkina;Faso;BF
Brunei;Darussalam;BN

That reveals that runs of FS are being changed to one OFS.
The only way to avoid that is to avoid the field re-calculation.
One function that can avoid re-calc is sub.
The first field could be captured, then removed from $0 with sub, and then both re-printed.

Option 3

awk '{ a=$1;sub("[^"FS"]+["FS"]+",""); print $0, a;}' infile.txt
       a=$1                                   # capture first field.
       sub( "                                 # replace: 
             [^"FS"]+                         # A run of non-FS
                     ["FS"]+                  # followed by a run of FS.
                            " , ""            # for nothing.
                                  )           # Default to $0 (the whole line.
       print $0, a                   # Print in reverse order, with OFS.


United Arab Emirates AE
Antigua & Barbuda AG
Netherlands Antilles AN
American Samoa AS
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Burkina Faso BF
Brunei Darussalam BN

Even if we change the FS, the OFS and/or add more delimiters, it works.
If the input file is changed to:

AE..United....Arab....Emirates
AG..Antigua....&...Barbuda
AN..Netherlands...Antilles
AS..American...Samoa
BA..Bosnia...and...Herzegovina
BF..Burkina...Faso
BN..Brunei...Darussalam

And the command changes to:

awk -vFS='.' -vOFS=';' '{a=$1;sub("[^"FS"]+["FS"]+",""); print $0,a;}' infile.txt

The output will be (still preserving delimiters):

United....Arab....Emirates;AE
Antigua....&...Barbuda;AG
Netherlands...Antilles;AN
American...Samoa;AS
Bosnia...and...Herzegovina;BA
Burkina...Faso;BF
Brunei...Darussalam;BN

The command could be expanded to several fields, but only with modern awks and with --re-interval option active. This command on the original file:

awk -vn=2 '{a=$1;b=$2;sub("([^"FS"]+["FS"]+){"n"}","");print $0,a,b;}' infile.txt

Will output this:

Arab Emirates AE United
& Barbuda AG Antigua
Antilles AN Netherlands
Samoa AS American
and Herzegovina BA Bosnia
Faso BF Burkina
Darussalam BN Brunei
共15条数据 1 尾页
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