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2021-06-24 12:21
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学生学籍管理系统c语言

学生学籍管理系统

课外实践要求

  1. 定义学生结构体类型
  2. 创建学生结构体类型数组或 单链表
  3. 输入学生的信息
  4. 将学生的信息存入硬盘
  5. 可以打开文件将学生信息从硬盘文件中读入程序
  6. 在程序中可以按指定学号或姓名查找某个学生的信息并显示
  7. 在程序中可以删除某个指定学生的信息
  8. 可以输入一个新的学生的信息到该班级
  9. 可以修改某个指定学生的信息
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1条回答 默认 最新

  • CSDN专家-黄老师 2021-06-24 12:32
    已采纳
    /*
    * C语言学生信息管理系统(动态链表版)
    * 功能:增添新键数据、修改删除数据、查询统计数据
    * 平台:windows
    */
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <string.h>
    #include <windows.h>
    # define LEN sizeof(struct Student)
     
    struct Student {
    	char num[10];  /*学号*/
    	char name[20]; /*姓名*/
    	char sex[10];  /*性别*/
    	int age;       /*年龄*/
    	char phone[12];/*电话*/
    	char qq[12];   /*QQ号*/
    	char nativePlace[20];/*籍贯*/
    	char department[20];/*系别*/
    	char major[20];/*专业*/
    	char className[20];/*班级*/
    	struct Student *next;
    };
     
    char filename[30];//全局变量,用来保存要打开的文件名字
     
    				  /*生成链表*/
    struct Student *Creat(int n) {
    	void menu_print_in(void);
    	struct Student *head;
    	struct Student *p1, *p2;
        int i;
    	system("cls");
    	for (i = 1;i < n + 1;i++) {
    		p1 = (struct Student*)malloc(LEN);
    		menu_print_in();
    		scanf("%s %s %s %d %s %s %s %s %s %s", p1->num, p1->name, p1->sex,
    			&p1->age, p1->phone, p1->qq,p1->nativePlace,p1->department,p1->major,p1->className);
    		p1->next = NULL;
    		if (i == 1) {
    			head = p2 = p1;
    		}
    		else {
    			p2->next = p1;
    			p2 = p1;
    		}
    	}
    	return(head);
    }
     
    /*数据存盘(wb只写)*/
    void WriteData_wb(struct Student *head) {
    	FILE *fp;
    	struct Student *p;
    	if ((fp = fopen(filename, "wb")) == NULL)
    		printf("\a error! Can not open the file!");
    	p = head;
    	while (p != NULL) {
    		if (fwrite(p, LEN, 1, fp) != 1) {
    			printf("写入数据出错\n");
    			fclose(fp);
    			return;
    		}
    		p = p->next;
    	}
    	fclose(fp);
    }
     
    /*数据存盘(ab追加)
    void WriteData_ab(struct Student *head) {
    	FILE *fp;
    	struct Student *p;
    	if ((fp = fopen(filename, "ab")) == NULL)
    		printf("\a error! Can not open the file!");
    	p = head;
    	while (p != NULL) {
    		if (fwrite(p, LEN, 1, fp) != 1) {
    			printf("写入数据出错\n");
    			fclose(fp);
    			return;
    		}
    		p = p->next;
    	}
    	fclose(fp);
    }
    /*读取数据*/
    /*读取数据文件保存到链表中 ,返回指向此链表头指针*/
    struct Student *ReadData(void) {
    	struct Student *head = NULL;
    	struct Student *p1, *p2;//s = p1;p = p2;
     
    	FILE *fp;
    	if ((fp = fopen(filename, "rb+")) == NULL)
    	{
    		printf("打开文件出错\n");
    		exit(0);
    	}
    	while (!feof(fp)) {
    		if ((p1 = (struct Student*)malloc(LEN)) == NULL) {
    			printf("内存申请出错\n");
    			fclose(fp);
    			exit(0);
    		}
    		if (fread(p1, LEN, 1, fp) != 1) {
    			free(p1);
    			break;
    		}
    		if (head == NULL)
    			head = p2 = p1;
    		else {
    			p2->next = p1;
    			p2 = p1;
    		}
    	}
    	fclose(fp);
    	return (head);
    }
     
    /*【1】全量查询*/
    void Print_inquire_all(void) {
    	void menu_print_out(void);
    	struct Student *pt;
    	pt = ReadData();
    	menu_print_out();
    	do {
    		printf("%-10s%6s%8s%4d%13s%11s  %s %s %s %s\n",
    			pt->num, pt->name, pt->sex, pt->age, pt->phone, pt->qq, pt->nativePlace, pt->department, pt->major, pt->className);
    		pt = pt->next;
    	} while (pt != NULL);
    	printf("\n\n");
    }
     
    /*【2】学号查询*/
    int Print_inquire_num() {
    	void menu_print_out(void);
    	struct Student *pt;
    	char str_num[10];
    	printf("◎请输入您要查询的学号:");
    	scanf("%s", str_num);
    	pt = ReadData();
    	menu_print_out();
    	do {
    		if (strcmp(pt->num, str_num) == 0) {
    			printf("%-10s%6s%8s%4d%13s%11s %s %s %s %s\n",
    				pt->num, pt->name, pt->sex, pt->age, pt->phone, pt->qq, pt->nativePlace, pt->department, pt->major, pt->className);
    			printf("\n\n");
    			return 0;
    		}
    		pt = pt->next;
    	} while (pt != NULL);
    	printf("数据库中没有存储您要查询的数据!\n");
    	printf("\n\n");
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*【3】姓名查询*/
    int Print_inquire_name() {
    	void menu_print_out(void);
    	struct Student *pt;
    	char str_name[20];
    	printf("◎请输入您要查询的姓名:");
    	scanf("%s", str_name);
    	pt = ReadData();
    	menu_print_out();
    	do {
    		if (strcmp(pt->name, str_name) == 0) {
    			printf("%-10s%6s%8s%4d%13s%11s  %s %s %s %s\n",
    				pt->num, pt->name, pt->sex, pt->age, pt->phone, pt->qq, pt->nativePlace, pt->department, pt->major, pt->className);
    			printf("\n\n");
    			return 0;
    		}
    		pt = pt->next;
    	} while (pt != NULL);
    	printf("数据库中没有存储您要查询的数据!\n");
    	printf("\n\n");
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*【4】模糊查询*/
    int Print_inquire_fuzzy(void) {
    	void menu_print_out(void);
    	struct Student *pt;
    	char str_find[20];
    	int m = 0;
    	printf("◎请输入您要查询的关键词:");
    	scanf("%s", str_find);
    	pt = ReadData();
    	menu_print_out();
    	do {
    		if (strstr(pt->num, str_find) != 0 || strstr(pt->name, str_find) != 0
    			|| strstr(pt->sex, str_find) != 0 || strstr(pt->phone, str_find) != 0
    			|| strstr(pt->qq, str_find) != 0) {
    			printf("%-10s%6s%8s%4d%13s%11s %s %s %s %s\n",
    				pt->num, pt->name, pt->sex, pt->age, pt->phone, pt->qq, pt->nativePlace, pt->department, pt->major, pt->className);
    			m = 1;
    		}
    		pt = pt->next;
    	} while (pt != NULL);
    	if (!m)
    		printf("数据库中没有存储您要查询的数据!\n");
    	printf("\n\n");
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*【1】修改数据之删除记录*/
    int Delete() {
    	struct Student *pt1, *pt2, *head;
    	char str_num[20];
    	printf("\n◎请输入您要删除的学号信息:");
    	scanf("%s", str_num);
    	pt1 = ReadData();
    	pt2 = pt1->next;
    	head = pt1;
    	while (pt2 != NULL) {
    		if (strcmp(pt1->num, str_num) == 0) {
    			WriteData_wb(pt2);
    		}
    		else if (strcmp(pt2->num, str_num) == 0) {
    			pt1->next = pt2->next;
    			WriteData_wb(head);
    		}
    		pt2 = pt2->next;
    		pt1 = pt1->next;
    	}
    	if (pt2 != NULL)
    		printf("数据库中没有存储您要删除的数据!\n");
    	printf("\n\n");
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*【2】修改数据之修改记录*/
    int Amend() {
    	void menu_print_in(void);
    	struct Student *pt1, *pt2, *head;
    	char str_num[20];
    	printf("◎请输入您要修改的学号信息:");
    	scanf("%s", str_num);
    	pt1 = ReadData();
    	pt2 = pt1->next;
    	head = pt1;
    	while (pt2 != NULL) {
    		if (strcmp(pt1->num, str_num) == 0) {
    			menu_print_in();
    			scanf("%s %s %s %d %s %s %s %s %s %s", pt1->num, pt1->name, pt1->sex,
    				&pt1->age, pt1->phone, pt1->qq, pt1->nativePlace, pt1->department, pt1->major, pt1->className);
    			WriteData_wb(head);
    		}
    		else if (strcmp(pt2->num, str_num) == 0) {
    			menu_print_in();
    			scanf("%s %s %s %d %s %s %s %s %s %s", pt2->num, pt2->name, pt2->sex,
    				&pt2->age, pt2->phone, pt2->qq, pt2->nativePlace, pt2->department, pt2->major, pt2->className);
    			WriteData_wb(head);
    		}
    		pt2 = pt2->next;
    		pt1 = pt1->next;
    	}
    	if (pt2 != NULL)
    		printf("数据库中没有存储您要删除的数据!\n");
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*【3】修改数据之整理数据*/
    int Neaten() {
    	struct Student *first;
    	struct Student *tail;
    	struct Student *p_min;
    	struct Student *min;
    	struct Student *p;
    	struct Student *head;
    	head = ReadData();
    	first = NULL;
    	while (head != NULL) {
    		for (p = head, min = head; p->next != NULL; p = p->next) {
    			if (strcmp(p->next->num, min->num) < 0) {
    				p_min = p;
    				min = p->next;
    			}
    		}
    		if (first == NULL) {
    			first = min;
    			tail = min;
    		}
    		else {
    			tail->next = min;
    			tail = min;
    		}
    		if (min == head) {
    			head = head->next;
    		}
    		else {
    			p_min->next = min->next;
    		}
    	}
    	if (first != NULL) {
    		tail->next = NULL;
    	}
    	head = first;
     
    	WriteData_wb(head);
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*输入写入数据的数量*/
    int Creat_num(void) {
    	int n;
    	printf("\n◎请输入您此次要添加的数据个数:");
    	
    	if (scanf("%d", &n) != 1) {
    		printf("\a error!");
    	}
    	return n;
    }
     
    /*选择将要打开的文件*/
    int File_name() {
    	printf("\n◎请输入您想要打开的文件:");
    	if (scanf("%s", filename) != 1)
    		printf("\a error!");
    	return 0;
    }
     
    /*主菜单*/
    void menu(void) {
    	void menu_add(void);
    	void menu_inquire(void);
    	void menu_amend(void);
    	int a = 0;
    	printf("              ╭════════╮              \n");
    	printf("╭══════╣学生管理系统V1.0╠══════╮\n");
    	printf("║            ╰════════╯            ║\n");
    	printf("║   【1】添加数据           【3】修改数据    ║\n");
    	printf("║                                            ║\n");
    	printf("║   【2】查询数据           【4】退出系统    ║\n");
    	printf("║                                            ║\n");
    	printf("╰══════════════════════╯\n");
    	printf("◎请输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
     
    	
    	a = getchar();
     
    	while (a != '1'&&a != '2'&&a != '3'&&a != '4') {
    		printf("error! please input the right number!\n");
    		putchar('\a');
    		getchar();
    		printf("◎请重新输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
    		a = getchar();
    	}
    	switch (a) {
    	case '1': File_name();menu_add();
    		break;
    	case '2': File_name();menu_inquire();
    		break;
    	case '3': File_name();menu_amend();
    		break;
    	case '4': exit(0);
    		break;
    	}
    	getchar();
    }
     
    /*二级菜单之添加数据*/
    void menu_add(void) {
    	int a = 0;
    	system("cls");
    	getchar();
    	printf("              ╭════════╮              \n");
    	printf("╭══════╣  添加数据方式  ╠══════╮\n");
    	printf("║            ╰════════╯            ║\n");
    	printf("║ 【1】新建文件 【2】增添数据 【3】返回菜单  ║\n");
    	printf("║                                            ║\n");
    	printf("╰══════════════════════╯\n");
    	printf("◎请输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
     
    	
    	a = getchar();
     
    	while (a != '1'&&a != '2'&&a != '3') {
    		printf("error! please input the right number!\n");
    		putchar('\a');
    		getchar();
    		printf("◎请重新输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
    		a = getchar();
    	}
    	switch (a) {
    	case '1': WriteData_wb(Creat(Creat_num()));
    		printf("\n◎新建文件成功且数据已成功保存◎\n");
    		system("pause");
    		system("cls");
    		menu_add();
    		break;
    	case '2': WriteData_ab(Creat(Creat_num()));
    		printf("\n◎数据已成功添加◎\n");
    		system("pause");
    		system("cls");
    		menu_add();
    		break;
    	case '3': system("cls");
    		getchar();
    		menu();
    		break;
    	}
    }
     
    /*二级菜单之查询数据*/
    void menu_inquire(void) {
    	int a = 0;
    	system("cls");
    	getchar();
    	while (1) {
    		system("cls");
    		printf("              ╭════════╮              \n");
    		printf("╭══════╣  查询数据方式  ╠══════╮\n");
    		printf("║            ╰════════╯            ║\n");
    		printf("║    【1】全量查询         【4】模糊查询     ║\n");
    		printf("║                                            ║\n");
    		printf("║    【2】学号查询         【5】返回菜单     ║\n");
    		printf("║                                            ║\n");
    		printf("║    【3】姓名查询                           ║\n");
    		printf("╰══════════════════════╯\n");
    		printf("◎请输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
    		
    		a = getchar();
     
    		while (a != '1'&&a != '2'&&a != '3'&&a != '3'&&a != '4'&&a != '5'&&a != '6') {
    			printf("error! please input the right number!\n");
    			putchar('\a');
    			getchar();
    			printf("◎请重新输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
    			a = getchar();
    		}
    		switch (a) {
    		case '1': Print_inquire_all();system("pause");getchar();
    			break;
    		case '2': Print_inquire_num();system("pause");getchar();
    			break;
    		case '3': Print_inquire_name();system("pause");getchar();
    			break;
    		case '4': Print_inquire_fuzzy();system("pause");getchar();;
    			break;
    		case '5': system("cls");getchar();menu();
    			break;
    		}
    	}
    }
     
    /*二级菜单之修改数据*/
    void menu_amend(void) {
    	int a = 0;
    	system("cls");
    	getchar();
    	while (1) {
    		system("cls");
    		printf("              ╭════════╮              \n");
    		printf("╭══════╣  修改数据方式  ╠══════╮\n");
    		printf("║            ╰════════╯            ║\n");
    		printf("║    【1】删除记录          【3】整理数据    ║\n");
    		printf("║                                            ║\n");
    		printf("║    【2】修改记录          【4】返回菜单    ║\n");
    		printf("╰══════════════════════╯\n");
    		printf("◎请输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
     
    		
    		a = getchar();
     
    		while (a != '1'&&a != '2'&&a != '3'&&a != '4') {
    			printf("error! please input the right number!\n");
    			putchar('\a');
    			getchar();
    			printf("◎请重新输入功能前的序号进入相应的工具:【   】\b\b");
    			a = getchar();
    		}
    		switch (a) {
    		case '1': Delete();
    			printf("\n\n◎已成功删除指定数据◎\n");
    			system("pause");
    			getchar();
    			break;
    		case '2': Amend();
    			printf("\n\n◎已成功修改指定数据◎\n");
    			system("pause");
    			getchar();
    			break;
    		case '3': Neaten();
    			printf("\n\n◎数据已成功按照学号重新排列◎\n");
    			system("pause");
    			getchar();
    			break;
    		case '4': system("cls");
    			getchar();
    			menu();
    			break;
    		}
    	}
    }
     
    /*输入输出提示栏*/
    void menu_print_in(void) {
    	printf("------------------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    	printf("学号      姓名     性别  年龄    电话         QQ        籍贯  系别  专业  班级   \n");
    	printf("------------------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    }
    void menu_print_out(void) {
    	printf("--------------------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    	printf("学号      姓名     性别  年龄    电话         QQ        籍贯  系别  专业  班级 \n");
    	printf("--------------------------------------------------------------------------\n");
    }
     
    /*主函数*/
    int main(void) {
    	SetConsoleTitle(L"学生学籍管理系统");
    	menu();
    	return 0;
    }

    如果对你有帮助,可以点击我这个回答右上方的【采纳】按钮,给我个采纳吗,谢谢
     

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