good-turing平滑方法的缺点改进

如果good-turing平滑方法里面,训练的数据不是连续的,比如N1=9;N2=0;N3=100;N4=0;N5=0,;N6=20;这样的情况里,如果需要计算r=3,显然就是0了;如果需要计算r=6时的,那么也没法计算,因为显然r=7的数据不存在,N7=0,得到的结果也是0,这两个问题又怎么办呢?
此外,在我的bigram模型里面,如果说第一个词s1是已收录词典里面没有的,那么,对于出现了的词对:s1 s2,他们的概率 P(s2|s1)又如何计算呢?

1个回答

这个问题是我做毕设初期的疑惑,但是后面自己就可以解答了。
首先,数据平滑里,Good-Turing确实是一个方法。但是对此,可以视为一种基础思想或者基础手段。而对于实际的问题,还是要综合多个平滑思想手段的。
一般搜索数据平滑,常见的机会出现Good-turing,adding-k,Katz等,但是,实际操作的时候,是多个基本平滑思想综合在一起的。
这里,对平滑方法做一个归类:插值与后备。二者都会对频数为0的数据平滑,但是,对于那些不为0的数据如何平滑,是否要用上更低阶去平滑,就有了二者的区分。那有没有不同低阶,统统只用高阶的呢?如问题所问,仅仅用高阶,比如Good-Turing是根本解决不了问题的。所以,要应付所有的为零的现象,必须用高阶。
    那比较实用的数据平滑方法有如下:留存插值法,Jelinek-Mercer 方法,Witten-Bell方法,Kneser-Ney方法,Absolute discounting方法,Modified Kneser-Ney方法以及后备模型下的Katz平滑方法。大多数都是不仅仅用了一种平滑思想。对于这些方法,使用效果说法不一。但是目前我所看到的最多的是 说Kneser-Ney方法最佳,
    我在毕设中实际用到的也是 Kneser-Ney方法,但是很不幸,所选数据还是会出现0的现象,但是已经比Good-turing好太多。于是没有别的办法,我把中间过程的数据0改为了0.1。这也是无奈之举,不过确实不糊影响到实际的概率分布状况。其实也是无奈之举,毕竟自己短期做个项目,数据不可能都训练到,只能自己根据凭据平滑的原则,“机智地”变更了一下下。
    对此,推荐一本书:宗成庆的《统计自然语言》。里面会有详细系统的讲解。
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nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more [b]问题补充:[/b] private UserService userService; [b]@Autowired[/b] public void setUserService(UserService userService) { this.userService = userService; } 加这个就报错。不知道什么地方的配置不对导致错误的。 严重: Context initialization failed org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'userAction': Autowiring of methods failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more 2008-11-15 18:06:58 org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext listenerStart 严重: Exception sending context initialized event to listener instance of class org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'userAction': Autowiring of methods failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more 恩。我是没有配置。 我现在想用注释的方式注入service 但是确不成功。 不知道错在那里。 applicationContext.xml 是不是加上这句就可以注入的方式了。 完整applicationContext.xml代码如下 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p" xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop" xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context" xmlns:jee="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee" xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx" xsi:schemaLocation=" http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee/spring-jee-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-2.5.xsd" default-autowire="byName"> <bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.support.PersistenceAnnotationBeanPostProcessor" /> <bean id="entityManagerFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean"> <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" /> <property name="jpaVendorAdapter"> <bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter"> <property name="database" value="MYSQL" /> <property name="showSql" value="true" /> </bean> </property> </bean> <context:property-placeholder location="classpath:jdbc.properties"/> <bean id="dataSource" class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource"> <property name="driverClassName" value="${jdbc.driverClassName}"/> <property name="url" value="${jdbc.url}"/> <property name="username" value="${jdbc.username}"/> <property name="password" value="${jdbc.password}"/> </bean> <bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager"> <property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="entityManagerFactory" /> </bean> <tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager" /> <context:component-scan base-package="com.turing.game.user"/> </beans> <tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager" /> [b]问题补充:[/b] private UserService userService; @Autowired public void setUserService(UserService userService) { this.userService = userService; } 加这个就报错。不知道什么地方的配置不对导致错误的。 严重: Context initialization failed org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'userAction': Autowiring of methods failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more 2008-11-15 18:06:58 org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext listenerStart 严重: Exception sending context initialized event to listener instance of class org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'userAction': Autowiring of methods failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more <strong>问题补充:</strong> private UserService userService; <strong>@Autowired</strong> public void setUserService(UserService userService) { this.userService = userService; } 加这个就报错。不知道什么地方的配置不对导致错误的。 严重: Context initialization failed org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'userAction': Autowiring of methods failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more 2008-11-15 18:06:58 org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext listenerStart 严重: Exception sending context initialized event to listener instance of class org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'userAction': Autowiring of methods failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:256) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:998) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:472) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory$1.run(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:409) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:380) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:264) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:221) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:261) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:185) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:164) at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:429) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:729) at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:381) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.createWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:255) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoader.initWebApplicationContext(ContextLoader.java:199) at org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener.contextInitialized(ContextLoaderListener.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.listenerStart(StandardContext.java:3692) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContext.start(StandardContext.java:4127) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChildInternal(ContainerBase.java:759) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.addChild(ContainerBase.java:739) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.addChild(StandardHost.java:524) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptor(HostConfig.java:603) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployDescriptors(HostConfig.java:535) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.deployApps(HostConfig.java:470) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.start(HostConfig.java:1118) at org.apache.catalina.startup.HostConfig.lifecycleEvent(HostConfig.java:310) at org.apache.catalina.util.LifecycleSupport.fireLifecycleEvent(LifecycleSupport.java:119) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1020) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHost.start(StandardHost.java:718) at org.apache.catalina.core.ContainerBase.start(ContainerBase.java:1012) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.start(StandardEngine.java:442) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:450) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:680) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:540) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:271) at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.main(Bootstrap.java:409) Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Could not autowire method: public void com.turing.game.user.action.UserAction.setUserService(com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService); nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:543) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.injectMethods(InjectionMetadata.java:117) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessPropertyValues(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:253) ... 40 more Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No unique bean of type [com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService] is defined: Unsatisfied dependency of type [interface com.turing.game.user.dao.UserService]: expected at least 1 matching bean at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:613) at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredMethodElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:499) ... 42 more 恩。我是没有配置。 我现在想用注释的方式注入service 但是确不成功。 不知道错在那里。 applicationContext.xml 是不是加上这句就可以注入的方式了。 完整applicationContext.xml代码如下 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> &lt;beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p" xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop" xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context" xmlns:jee="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee" xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx" xsi:schemaLocation=" http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee http://www.springframework.org/schema/jee/spring-jee-2.5.xsd http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-2.5.xsd" default-autowire="byName"> &lt;bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.support.PersistenceAnnotationBeanPostProcessor" /> &lt;bean id="entityManagerFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean"> &lt;property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" /> &lt;property name="jpaVendorAdapter"> &lt;bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter"> &lt;property name="database" value="MYSQL" /> &lt;property name="showSql" value="true" /> &lt;/bean> &lt;/property> &lt;/bean> &lt;context:property-placeholder location="classpath:jdbc.properties"/> &lt;bean id="dataSource" class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource"> &lt;property name="driverClassName" value="${jdbc.driverClassName}"/> &lt;property name="url" value="${jdbc.url}"/> &lt;property name="username" value="${jdbc.username}"/> &lt;property name="password" value="${jdbc.password}"/> &lt;/bean> &lt;bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager"> &lt;property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="entityManagerFactory" /> &lt;/bean> &lt;tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager" /> &lt;context:component-scan base-package="com.turing.game.user"/> &lt;/beans> &lt;tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager" /> jones对了。 现在我继续研究。 看看接下看如何配置了 确实需要在service的地方配置@Service
Language of FatMouse
We all know that FatMouse doesn't speak English. But now he has to be prepared since our nation will join WTO soon. Thanks to Turing we have computers to help him. Input Specification Input consists of up to 100,005 dictionary entries, followed by a blank line, followed by a message of up to 100,005 words. Each dictionary entry is a line containing an English word, followed by a space and a FatMouse word. No FatMouse word appears more than once in the dictionary. The message is a sequence of words in the language of FatMouse, one word on each line. Each word in the input is a sequence of at most 10 lowercase letters. Output Specification Output is the message translated to English, one word per line. FatMouse words not in the dictionary should be translated as "eh". Sample Input dog ogday cat atcay pig igpay froot ootfray loops oopslay atcay ittenkay oopslay Output for Sample Input cat eh loops
CAPTCHA
A CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) is a program that generates and grades tests that are human solvable, but intends to be beyond the capabilities of current computer programs. This technology is now almost a standard security mechanism for defending against undesirable or malicious Internet bot programs, such as those spreading junk emails and those grabbing thousands of free email accounts instantly. It is hard for you to make a program to solve it. So, in this moment, you just need to solve a much easier problem. 111111MMM1111111 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 11111MMMMMMMM111 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 1MMMMMMMMMMMM111 1MMMMMMMMMMMMM11 11111MM1MM111111 1MM11111111MM111 111MM1111111MM11 1MM111111111MM11 1MM1111111111111 1MM1111111111111 1111MM111MM11111 1MM11111111MM111 11MM111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM1111111111111 1MM1111111111111 111MMMMMMMMM1111 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 11MM111111111111 1MM1111111111MM1 1MMMMMMMMMMMM111 1MMMMMMMMMMMMM11 11MM1111111MM111 1MM11111111MM111 11MM111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM1111111111111 1MM1111111111111 1MMM11111111MM11 1MM11111111MM111 111MM1111111MM11 1MM111111111MM11 1MM1111111111111 1MM1111111111111 1MM1111111111MM1 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 11111MMMMMMMM111 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 1MMMMMMMMMMMM111 1MM1111111111111 11111MMMMMMMM111 1MM111111111MM11 11111MMMMMM11111 1111MMMMMMMM1111 11MM111111MMM111 11MM111111111111 111MM1111111MM11 1MM111111111MM11 1111111MM1111111 1111111MM1111111 11MM11111MMM1111 11MM111111111111 11MM111111111MM1 1MM111111111MM11 1111111MM1111111 1111111MM1111111 11MM111MMM111111 11MM111111111111 11MM111111111111 1MMMMMMMMMMMMM11 1111111MM1111111 1111111MM1111111 11MMMMM111111111 11MM111111111111 11MM111111MMMMM1 1MM111111111MM11 1111111MM1111111 111MM11MM1111111 11MM111MMM111111 11MM111111111111 111MM1111111MM11 1MM111111111MM11 1111111MM1111111 111MMM1MM1111111 11MM11111MMM1111 11MM111111111111 11111MMMMMMMMM11 1MM111111111MM11 11111MMMMMM11111 11111MMMM1111111 11MM111111MMMM11 11MMMMMMMMMMMM11 1MM1111111111MM1 1MMM111111111MM1 11111MMMMMM11111 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 11111MMMMMM11111 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 1MMMM111111MMMM1 1MMMM11111111MM1 111MMM1111MMM111 1MM111111111MM11 111MMM1111MMM111 1MM111111111MM11 1MM1MM1111MM1MM1 1MM1MM1111111MM1 11MMM111111MMM11 1MM1111111111MM1 11MMM111111MMM11 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM11MMMMM111MM1 1MM11MM111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM111111111MM11 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM111111111MM11 1MM1111M11111MM1 1MM1111MM1111MM1 11MMM111111MMM11 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 11MMM1MMMM1MMM11 1MMMMMMMMMMM1111 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM111111MMM1MM1 111MMM1111MMM111 1MM1111111111111 111MMM11MMMMM111 1MM11111111MM111 1MM1111111111MM1 1MM11111111MMMM1 11111MMMMMM11111 1MM1111111111111 111111MMMM1MMMM1 1MM111111111MMM1 1111MMMMMMMM1111 11MMMMMMMMMMMM11 1MM1111111111MM1 1MMMM111111MMMM1 1MM1111111111MM1 11MMM111111MMM11 111MM1111111MM11 11MMMMMMMMMMMM11 1MM1111111111MM1 11MMM111111MMM11 1MM1111111111MM1 111MMM1111MMM111 11MMM1111111MMM1 1111111MM1111111 1MM1111111111MM1 11MMM111111MMM11 11MM111MM111MM11 1111MMM11MMM1111 1111MMMMM1111111 1111111MM1111111 1MM1111111111MM1 111MMM1111MMM111 11MM111MM111MM11 111111MMMM111111 1MMM111MMMM11111 1111111MM1111111 1MMM11111111MMM1 1111MMM11MMM1111 11MM111MM111MM11 1111MMM11MMM1111 111MMM11111MMM11 1111111MM1111111 1MMM11111111MMM1 11111MM11MM11111 11MM1MM11MM1MM11 111MMM1111MMM111 11111MMMMMMM1111 1111111MM1111111 111MMMMMMMMMM111 111111MMMM111111 111MMM1111MMM111 11MMM111111MMM11 11MMM111111MMM11 111MMMMMMMMMM111 111MMM1111MMM111 1111111111MM1111 1111MMM11MMM1111 111111111MM11111 111111MMMM111111 11111111MM111111 1111111MM1111111 111111MM11111111 1111111MM1111111 11111MM111111111 1111111MM1111111 111MMMMMMMMMMM11 Assume that the CAPTCHA only consists of upper letters. As you see above, we use a 7 * 16 matrix to represent a letter. The matrix only consists of characters 'M' and '1'. You can make sure that the 'M' elements in each letter matrix are connected. It means the all 'M' elements in each letter matrix belong to only ONE component. One element is connected to its 8 neighboring elements. That is, (x - 1, y), (x + 1, y), (x, y - 1), (x, y + 1), (x - 1, y - 1), (x + 1, y - 1), (x - 1, y + 1), (x + 1, y + 1) are (x, y)'s neighbors and they are connected. And you will be given a bigger matrix, like this: 11111MMMMMM111 1111111MM11111 1MM1111MM11111 1MM1111MM11111 1MM1111MM11111 1MM1111MM11111 1MM11MMMMMM111 1MM11111111111 1MMMMMMMMMMMM1 Your task is to tell which letters appear in this matrix. The answer for this sample is 'I' and 'L'. What's more, the letter appears in the bigger matrix may rotate 180 degrees, like this: 1MM1111111111MM11111111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM11111111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM11111111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM111MMMMMMMMMMMMM1 1MMM11111111MMM11111111111111MM1 1MMM11111111MMM11111111111111MM1 111MMMMMMMMMM11111MMMMMMMMMMMMM1 'F' and 'U' is the answer for this sample. OK, it's time for you to finish this work. Input There are multiple cases (no more than 10). In the first line, two integers n and m (7 <= n, m <= 300) will be given. Following n lines give the matrix. Each line contains m characters. Each character will be either 'M' or '1'. You may assume that 'M' characters between any pair of letters in the matrix won't be connected, and each 'M' in the matrix belongs to one valid letter. There is a blank line between cases. Output Output the characters appear in the matrix. If a letter appears more than once, just output it ONE time. Sort the answer in alphabet order. Sample Input 7 32 1MM1111111111MM11111111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM11111111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM11111111111111MM1 1MM1111111111MM111MMMMMMMMMMMMM1 1MMM11111111MMM11111111111111MM1 1MMM11111111MMM11111111111111MM1 111MMMMMMMMMM11111MMMMMMMMMMMMM1 15 19 11111MMMMMMMM111111 111MM1111111MM11111 11MM111111111MM1111 11MM111111111111111 11MM111111MMMMM1111 111MM1111111MM11111 11111MMMMMMMMM11111 1111111111111111111 1111MMM111111111MM1 1111MMMM11111111MM1 1111MM1MM1111111MM1 1111MM11MM111111MM1 1111MM1111MM1111MM1 1111MM111111MMM1MM1 1111MM11111111MMMM1 Sample Output FU GN
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