一个百度拇指医生爬虫,想要先实现爬取某个问题的所有链接,但是爬不出来东西。求各位大神帮忙看一下这是为什么?

#写在前面的话
在这个爬虫里我想实现把百度拇指医生里关于“咳嗽”的链接全部爬取下来,下一步要进行的是把爬取到的每个链接里的items里面的内容爬取下来,但是我在第一步就卡住了,求各位大神帮我看一下吧。之前刚刚发了一篇问答,但是不知道怎么回事儿,现在找不到了,(貌似是被删了...?)救救小白吧!感激不尽!

这个是我的爬虫的结构

图片说明

##ks:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from kesou.items import  KesouItem
from scrapy.selector import Selector
from scrapy.spiders import Spider
from scrapy.http import Request ,FormRequest
import pymongo

class KsSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = 'ks'
    allowed_domains = ['kesou,baidu.com']
    start_urls = ['https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E5%92%B3%E5%97%BD&pn=0&oq=%E5%92%B3%E5%97%BD&ct=2097152&ie=utf-8&si=muzhi.baidu.com&rsv_pq=980e0c55000e2402&rsv_t=ed3f0i5yeefxTMskgzim00cCUyVujMRnw0Vs4o1%2Bo%2Bohf9rFXJvk%2FSYX%2B1M']

    def parse(self, response):
        item = KesouItem()
        contents = response.xpath('.//h3[@class="t"]')
        for content in contents:
            url = content.xpath('.//a/@href').extract()[0]
            item['url'] = url 
            yield item

        if self.offset < 760:
            self.offset += 10
            yield scrapy.Request(url = "https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E5%92%B3%E5%97%BD&pn=" + str(self.offset) + "&oq=%E5%92%B3%E5%97%BD&ct=2097152&ie=utf-8&si=muzhi.baidu.com&rsv_pq=980e0c55000e2402&rsv_t=ed3f0i5yeefxTMskgzim00cCUyVujMRnw0Vs4o1%2Bo%2Bohf9rFXJvk%2FSYX%2B1M",callback=self.parse,dont_filter=True)

##items:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define here the models for your scraped items
#
# See documentation in:
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html

import scrapy
class KesouItem(scrapy.Item):
    # 问题ID
    question_ID = scrapy.Field()
    # 问题描述
    question = scrapy.Field()
    # 医生回答发表时间
    answer_pubtime = scrapy.Field()
    # 问题详情
    description = scrapy.Field()
    # 医生姓名
    doctor_name = scrapy.Field()
    # 医生职位
    doctor_title = scrapy.Field()
    # 医生所在医院
    hospital = scrapy.Field()

##middlewares:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define here the models for your spider middleware
#
# See documentation in:
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

from scrapy import signals


class KesouSpiderMiddleware(object):
    # Not all methods need to be defined. If a method is not defined,
    # scrapy acts as if the spider middleware does not modify the
    # passed objects.

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        # This method is used by Scrapy to create your spiders.
        s = cls()
        crawler.signals.connect(s.spider_opened, signal=signals.spider_opened)
        return s

    def process_spider_input(self, response, spider):
        # Called for each response that goes through the spider
        # middleware and into the spider.

        # Should return None or raise an exception.
        return None

    def process_spider_output(self, response, result, spider):
        # Called with the results returned from the Spider, after
        # it has processed the response.

        # Must return an iterable of Request, dict or Item objects.
        for i in result:
            yield i

    def process_spider_exception(self, response, exception, spider):
        # Called when a spider or process_spider_input() method
        # (from other spider middleware) raises an exception.

        # Should return either None or an iterable of Request, dict
        # or Item objects.
        pass

    def process_start_requests(self, start_requests, spider):
        # Called with the start requests of the spider, and works
        # similarly to the process_spider_output() method, except
        # that it doesn’t have a response associated.

        # Must return only requests (not items).
        for r in start_requests:
            yield r

    def spider_opened(self, spider):
        spider.logger.info('Spider opened: %s' % spider.name)


class KesouDownloaderMiddleware(object):
    # Not all methods need to be defined. If a method is not defined,
    # scrapy acts as if the downloader middleware does not modify the
    # passed objects.

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        # This method is used by Scrapy to create your spiders.
        s = cls()
        crawler.signals.connect(s.spider_opened, signal=signals.spider_opened)
        return s

    def process_request(self, request, spider):
        # Called for each request that goes through the downloader
        # middleware.

        # Must either:
        # - return None: continue processing this request
        # - or return a Response object
        # - or return a Request object
        # - or raise IgnoreRequest: process_exception() methods of
        #   installed downloader middleware will be called
        return None

    def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
        # Called with the response returned from the downloader.

        # Must either;
        # - return a Response object
        # - return a Request object
        # - or raise IgnoreRequest
        return response

    def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
        # Called when a download handler or a process_request()
        # (from other downloader middleware) raises an exception.

        # Must either:
        # - return None: continue processing this exception
        # - return a Response object: stops process_exception() chain
        # - return a Request object: stops process_exception() chain
        pass

    def spider_opened(self, spider):
        spider.logger.info('Spider opened: %s' % spider.name)

##piplines:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define your item pipelines here
#
# Don't forget to add your pipeline to the ITEM_PIPELINES setting
# See: https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html

import pymongo
from scrapy.utils.project import get_project_settings
settings = get_project_settings()

class KesouPipeline(object):
    def __init__(self):
        host = settings["MONGODB_HOST"]
        port = settings["MONGODB_PORT"]
        dbname = settings["MONGODB_DBNAME"]
        sheetname= settings["MONGODB_SHEETNAME"]
        # 创建MONGODB数据库链接
        client = pymongo.MongoClient(host = host, port = port)
        # 指定数据库
        mydb = client[dbname]
        # 存放数据的数据库表名
        self.sheet = mydb[sheetname]
    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        data = dict(item)
        self.sheet.insert(data)
        return item

##settings:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Scrapy settings for kesou project
#
# For simplicity, this file contains only settings considered important or
# commonly used. You can find more settings consulting the documentation:
#
#     https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html
#     https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
#     https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

BOT_NAME = 'kesou'

SPIDER_MODULES = ['kesou.spiders']
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = 'kesou.spiders'


# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
#USER_AGENT = 'kesou (+http://www.yourdomain.com)'

# Obey robots.txt rules
ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

# Configure maximum concurrent requests performed by Scrapy (default: 16)
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS = 32

# Configure a delay for requests for the same website (default: 0)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html#download-delay
# See also autothrottle settings and docs
#DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 3
# The download delay setting will honor only one of:
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN = 16
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_IP = 16

# Disable cookies (enabled by default)
COOKIES_ENABLED = False

# Disable Telnet Console (enabled by default)
#TELNETCONSOLE_ENABLED = False
USER_AGENT="Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:67.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/67.0"

# Override the default request headers:
#DEFAULT_REQUEST_HEADERS = {
#   'Accept': 'text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8',
#   'Accept-Language': 'en',
#}

# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
#SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'kesou.middlewares.KesouSpiderMiddleware': 543,
#}

# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
#DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'kesou.middlewares.KesouDownloaderMiddleware': 543,
#}

# Enable or disable extensions
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/extensions.html
#EXTENSIONS = {
#    'scrapy.extensions.telnet.TelnetConsole': None,
#}

# Configure item pipelines
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
ITEM_PIPELINES = {
    'kesou.pipelines.KesouPipeline': 300,
}

# MONGODB 主机名
MONGODB_HOST = "127.0.0.1"
# MONGODB 端口号
MONGODB_PORT = 27017
# 数据库名称
MONGODB_DBNAME = "ks"
# 存放数据的表名称
MONGODB_SHEETNAME = "ks_urls"
# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html
#AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
#AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
#AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 60
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to
# each remote server
#AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0
# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
#AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = False

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings
#HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True
#HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0
#HTTPCACHE_DIR = 'httpcache'
#HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []
#HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = 'scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage'

##run.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from scrapy import cmdline
cmdline.execute("scrapy crawl ks".split())

##这个是运行出来的结果:

PS D:\scrapy_project\kesou> scrapy crawl ks
2019-11-27 00:14:17 [scrapy.utils.log] INFO: Scrapy 1.7.3 started (bot: kesou)
2019-11-27 00:14:17 [scrapy.utils.log] INFO: Versions: lxml 4.3.2.0, libxml2 2.9.9, cssselect 1.1.0, parsel 1.5.2, w3lib 1.21.0, Twis.7.0, Python 3.7.3 (default, Mar 27 2019, 17:13:21) [MSC v.1915 64 bit (AMD64)], pyOpenSSL 19.0.0 (OpenSSL 1.1.1b  26 Feb 2019), cryphy 2.6.1, Platform Windows-10-10.0.18362-SP0
2019-11-27 00:14:17 [scrapy.crawler] INFO: Overridden settings: {'BOT_NAME': 'kesou', 'COOKIES_ENABLED': False, 'NEWSPIDER_MODULE': 'spiders', 'SPIDER_MODULES': ['kesou.spiders'], 'USER_AGENT': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:67.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/67
2019-11-27 00:14:17 [scrapy.extensions.telnet] INFO: Telnet Password: 051629c46f34abdf
2019-11-27 00:14:17 [scrapy.middleware] INFO: Enabled extensions:
['scrapy.extensions.corestats.CoreStats',
 'scrapy.extensions.telnet.TelnetConsole',
 'scrapy.extensions.logstats.LogStats']
2019-11-27 00:14:19 [scrapy.middleware] INFO: Enabled downloader middlewares:
['scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.httpauth.HttpAuthMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.downloadtimeout.DownloadTimeoutMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.defaultheaders.DefaultHeadersMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.useragent.UserAgentMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.retry.RetryMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.redirect.MetaRefreshMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.httpcompression.HttpCompressionMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.redirect.RedirectMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.httpproxy.HttpProxyMiddleware',
 'scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.stats.DownloaderStats']
2019-11-27 00:14:19 [scrapy.middleware] INFO: Enabled spider middlewares:
['scrapy.spidermiddlewares.httperror.HttpErrorMiddleware',
 'scrapy.spidermiddlewares.offsite.OffsiteMiddleware',
 'scrapy.spidermiddlewares.referer.RefererMiddleware',
 'scrapy.spidermiddlewares.urllength.UrlLengthMiddleware',
 'scrapy.spidermiddlewares.depth.DepthMiddleware']
2019-11-27 00:14:19 [scrapy.middleware] INFO: Enabled item pipelines:
['kesou.pipelines.KesouPipeline']
2019-11-27 00:14:19 [scrapy.core.engine] INFO: Spider opened
2019-11-27 00:14:19 [scrapy.extensions.logstats] INFO: Crawled 0 pages (at 0 pages/min), scraped 0 items (at 0 items/min)
2019-11-27 00:14:19 [scrapy.extensions.telnet] INFO: Telnet console listening on 127.0.0.1:6023
2019-11-27 00:14:20 [scrapy.core.engine] DEBUG: Crawled (200) <GET https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E5%92%B3%E5%97%BD&pn=0&oq=%E5%92%B3%E5&ct=2097152&ie=utf-8&si=muzhi.baidu.com&rsv_pq=980e0c55000e2402&rsv_t=ed3f0i5yeefxTMskgzim00cCUyVujMRnw0Vs4o1%2Bo%2Bohf9rFXJvk%2FSYX%
(referer: None)
2019-11-27 00:14:20 [scrapy.core.scraper] ERROR: Spider error processing <GET https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E5%92%B3%E5%97%BD&pn=0&oq=%B3%E5%97%BD&ct=2097152&ie=utf-8&si=muzhi.baidu.com&rsv_pq=980e0c55000e2402&rsv_t=ed3f0i5yeefxTMskgzim00cCUyVujMRnw0Vs4o1%2Bo%2Bohf9rFFSYX%2B1M> (referer: None)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\utils\defer.py", line 102, in iter_errback
    yield next(it)
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\core\spidermw.py", line 84, in evaluate_iterable
    for r in iterable:
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\spidermiddlewares\offsite.py", line 29, in process_spider_output
    for x in result:
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\core\spidermw.py", line 84, in evaluate_iterable
    for r in iterable:
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\spidermiddlewares\referer.py", line 339, in <genexpr>
    return (_set_referer(r) for r in result or ())
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\core\spidermw.py", line 84, in evaluate_iterable
    for r in iterable:
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\spidermiddlewares\urllength.py", line 37, in <genexpr>
    return (r for r in result or () if _filter(r))
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\core\spidermw.py", line 84, in evaluate_iterable
    for r in iterable:
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\spidermiddlewares\depth.py", line 58, in <genexpr>
    return (r for r in result or () if _filter(r))
  File "D:\scrapy_project\kesou\kesou\spiders\ks.py", line 19, in parse
    item['url'] = url
  File "d:\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\scrapy\item.py", line 73, in __setitem__
    (self.__class__.__name__, key))
KeyError: 'KesouItem does not support field: url'
2019-11-27 00:14:20 [scrapy.core.engine] INFO: Closing spider (finished)
2019-11-27 00:14:20 [scrapy.statscollectors] INFO: Dumping Scrapy stats:
{'downloader/request_bytes': 438,
 'downloader/request_count': 1,
 'downloader/request_method_count/GET': 1,
 'downloader/response_bytes': 68368,
 'downloader/response_count': 1,
 'downloader/response_status_count/200': 1,
 'elapsed_time_seconds': 0.992207,
 'finish_reason': 'finished',
 'finish_time': datetime.datetime(2019, 11, 26, 16, 14, 20, 855804),
 'log_count/DEBUG': 1,
2019-11-27 00:14:20 [scrapy.statscollectors] INFO: Dumping Scrapy stats:
{'downloader/request_bytes': 438,
 'downloader/request_count': 1,
 'downloader/request_method_count/GET': 1,
 'downloader/response_bytes': 68368,
 'downloader/response_count': 1,
 'downloader/response_status_count/200': 1,
 'elapsed_time_seconds': 0.992207,
 'finish_reason': 'finished',
 'finish_time': datetime.datetime(2019, 11, 26, 16, 14, 20, 855804),
 'log_count/DEBUG': 1,
 'log_count/ERROR': 1,
 'log_count/INFO': 10,
 'response_received_count': 1,
 'scheduler/dequeued': 1,
 'scheduler/dequeued/memory': 1,
 'scheduler/enqueued': 1,
 'scheduler/enqueued/memory': 1,
 'spider_exceptions/KeyError': 1,
 'start_time': datetime.datetime(2019, 11, 26, 16, 14, 19, 863597)}
2019-11-27 00:14:21 [scrapy.core.engine] INFO: Spider closed (finished)

1个回答

ks的里面 item['url'] = url 这个url在items里都没有初始化,怎么能直接用?

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