Python进行决策树剪枝提示AttributeError: 'function' object has no attribute 'deepcopy'。

1个回答

``````import copy
``````

R语言实现决策树的步骤和分析

R语言中决策树的代码是如何实现的，有没有一个具体的例子，最后有实现后期的分析解释。。

python算法编码问题咨询

Problem Description Disney's FastPass is a virtual queuing system created by the Walt Disney Company. First introduced in 1999 (thugh the idea of a ride reservation system was first introduced in world fairs), Fast-Pass allows guests to avoid long lines at the attractions on which the system is installed, freeing them to enjoy other attractions during their wait. The service is available at no additional charge to all park guests. --- wikipedia Disneyland is a large theme park with plenties of entertainment facilities, also with a large number of tourists. Normally, you need to wait for a long time before geting the chance to enjoy any of the attractions. The FastPass is a system allowing you to pick up FastPass-tickets in some specific position, and use them at the corresponding facility to avoid long lines. With the help of the FastPass System, one can arrange his/her trip more efficiently. You are given the map of the whole park, and there are some attractions that you are interested in. How to visit all the interested attractions within the shortest time? Input The first line contains an integer T(1<=T<=25), indicating the number of test cases. Each test case contains several lines. The first line contains three integers N,M,K(1 <= N <= 50; 0 <= M <= N(N - 1)/2; 0 <= K <= 8), indicating the number of locations(starting with 1, and 1 is the only gate of the park where the trip must be started and ended), the number of roads and the number of interested attractions. The following M lines each contains three integers A,B,D(1 <= A,B <= N; 0 <= D <= 10^4) which means it takes D minutes to travel between location A and location B. The following K lines each contains several integers Pi, Ti, FTi,Ni, Fi,1, Fi,2 ... Fi,Ni-1, FiNi ,(1 <= Pi,Ni, Fi,j <=N, 0 <= FTi <= Ti <= 10^4), which means the ith interested araction is placed at location Pi and there are Ni locations Fi,1; Fi,2 ... Fi,Ni where you can get the FastPass for the ith attraction. If you come to the ith attraction with its FastPass, you need to wait for only FTi minutes, otherwise you need to wait for Ti minutes. You can assume that all the locations are connected and there is at most one road between any two locations. Note that there might be several attrractions at one location. Output For each test case in the input, print one line: "Case #X: Y", where X is the test case number (starting with 1) and Y is the minimum time of the trip. Sample Input 2 4 5 2 1 2 8 2 3 4 3 4 19 4 1 6 2 4 7 2 25 18 1 3 4 12 6 1 3 4 6 2 1 2 5 1 4 4 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 4 1 2 4 10 2 8 3 1 4 4 8 3 1 2 Sample Output Case #1: 53 Case #2: 14

/3. 应用归结反演来检查输入的句子是否包含知识库。写下解决步骤。 KB P ˅ Q ¬ P ˅ Q P ˅ ¬ Q Input Sentence P ∧ Q

Problem Description A rooted graph is an indirected graph with every edge attached by some path to a special vertex called the root or the ground. The ground is denoted in the below figures that follow by a dotted line. A bamboo stalk with n segments is a linear graph of n edges with the bottom of the n edges rooted to the ground. A move consists of hacking away one of the segments, and removing that segment and all segments above it no longer connectd to the ground. Two players alternate moves and the last player to move wins. A single bamboo stalk of n segments can be moved into a bamboo stalk of any smaller number of segments from n-1 to 0. So a single bamboo stalk of n segments is equivalent to a nim pile of n chips. As you known, the player who moves first can win the the game with only one bamboo stalk. So many people always play the game with several bamboo stalks. One example is as below: Playing a sum of games of bamboo stalks is thus equivalent to playing a nim game that with several piles. A move consisits of selecting a bamboo stalk containg n segments and hacking away one of the segments in the selected bamboo stalk. I think the nim game is easy for you, the smart ACMers. So, today, we play a game named "cutting trees". A "rooted tree" is a graph with a distinguished vertex called the root, with the property that from every vertex there is unique path(that doesn't repeat edges) to the root. Essentially this means there are no cycles. Of course, in the game "cutting trees", there are several trees.Again, a move consisits of selecting a tree and hacking away any segment and removing segment and anything not connected to the ground. The player who cuts the last segment wins the game. Input Standard input will contain multiple test cases. The first line of the input is a single integer T which is the number of test cases. T test cases follow. Each case begins with a N(1<=N<=1000), the number of trees in the game.A tree is decribed by a number m, the nodes of the tree and R(0<=R<=m-1), the root of the tree. Then m-1 lines follow, each line containg two positive integers A,B∈[0,m-1], means that there is a edge between A and B. In the game, the first player always moves first. Output Results should be directed to standard output. For each case, if the first player wins, ouput "The first player wins", or else, output "The second player wins",in a single line. Sample Input 1 1 4 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 Sample Output The first player wins

Problem Description If you want to buy a new cellular phone, there are many various types to choose from. To decide which one is the best for you, you have to consider several important things: its size and weight, battery capacity, WAP support, colour, price. One of the most important things is also the list of games the phone provides. Nokia is one of the most successful phone makers because of its famous Snake and Snake II. ACM wants to make and sell its own phone and they need to program several games for it. One of them is Master-Mind, the famous board logical game. The game is played between two players. One of them chooses a secret code consisting of P ordered pins, each of them having one of the predefined set of C colours. The goal of the second player is to guess that secret sequence of colours. Some colours may not appear in the code, some colours may appear more than once. The player makes guesses, which are formed in the same way as the secret code. After each guess, he/she is provided with an information on how successful the guess was. This feedback is called a hint. Each hint consists of B black points and W white points. The black point stands for every pin that was guessed right, i.e. the right colour was put on the right position. The white point means right colour but on the wrong position. For example, if the secret code is "white, yellow, red, blue, white" and the guess was "white, red, white, white, blue", the hint would consist of one black point (for the white on the first position) and three white points (for the other white, red and blue colours). The goal is to guess the sequence with the minimal number of hints. The new ACM phone should have the possibility to play both roles. It can make the secret code and give hints, but it can also make its own guesses. Your goal is to write a program for the latter case, that means a program that makes Master-Mind guesses. Input There is a single positive integer T on the first line of input. It stands for the number of test cases to follow. Each test case describes one game situation and you are to make a guess. On the first line of each test case, there are three integer numbers, P, C and M. P ( 1 <= P <= 10) is the number of pins, C (1 <= C <= 100) is the number of colours, and M (1 <= M <= 100) is the number of already played guesses. Then there are 2 x M lines, two lines for every guess. At the first line of each guess, there are P integer numbers representing colours of the guess. Each colour is represented by a number Gi, 1 <= Gi <= C. The second line contains two integer numbers, B and W, stating for the number of black and white points given by the corresponding hint. Let's have a secret code S1, S2, ... SP and the guess G1, G2, ... GP. Then we can make a set H containing pairs of numbers (I,J) such that SI = GJ, and that any number can appear at most once on the first position and at most once on the second position. That means for every two different pairs from that set, (I1,J1) and (I2,J2), we have I1 <> I2 and J1 <> J2. Then we denote B(H) the number of pairs in the set, that meet the condition I = J, and W(H) the number of pairs with I <> J. We define an ordering of every two possible sets H1 and H2. Let's say H1 <= H2 if and only if one of the following holds: B(H1) < B(H2), or B(H1) = B(H2) and W(H1) <= W(H2) Then we can find a maximal set Hmax according to this ordering. The numbers B(Hmax) and W(Hmax) are the black and white points for that hint. Output For every test case, print the line containing P numbers representing P colours of the next guess. Your guess must be valid according to all previous guesses and hints. The guess is valid if the sequence could be a secret code, i.e. the sequence was not eliminated by previous guesses and hints. If there is no valid guess possible, output the sentence You are cheating!. If there are more valid guesses, output the one that is lexicographically smallest. I.e. find such guess G that for every other valid guess V there exists such a number I that: GJ = VJ for every J<I, and GI<VI. Sample Input 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 4 6 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 4 4 4 4 2 0 8 9 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 2 0 Sample Output 1 1 1 3 You are cheating! 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

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