 Time to Graduate 具体代码实现方法

Problem Description
A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall.
In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue.Input
There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above.Output
The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output.Sample Input
4 6
cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789
mt42 F 0
cs123 S 0
cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42
cs789 B 1 cs456
3 6
math1 comp2 comp3
comp3 S 1 comp2
math1 S 0
comp2 F 1 math1
4 3
m10 m20 c33 c44
m10 B 0
m20 B 0
c33 B 0
c44 B 0
1 1Sample Output
The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5.
The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4.
The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
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 Time to Graduate 正确实现的方式
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate 的编写
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate 时间的问题
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate 是怎么写的呢
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate 程序的设计
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate 怎么来编写
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate
 Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 <= n <= 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 <= m <= 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered ('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 <= p <= 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 Time to Graduate正确编写的思路
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 用C语言的算法，Time to Graduate
 Problem Description A prospective CS student is investigating how many semesters it will take to graduate from a variety of different universities. Each university provides a list of required courses, their prerequisites, and when each course is offered. Given this information, determine the minimum number of semesters to graduate. Consider the following example. A student is required to take 4 courses, mt42, cs123, cs456, and cs789. mt42 is only offered in the fall semester and has no prerequisites. Similarly, cs123 is only offered in the spring semester and has no prerequisites. cs456 is only offered in the spring semester and has both cs123 and mt42 as prerequisites. Finally, cs789 is offered in both fall and spring and has cs456 as its only prerequisite. The shortest time to graduate is 5 semesters, by taking mt42 in the fall, cs123 in the next spring, cs456 the following spring (since it is not offered in the fall) and finally cs789 the following fall. For this problem, there are only two semesters, fall and spring. Always start counting semesters from the fall. In addition to the fall/spring scheduling issues, there is one slight complication. In order to keep the dormitories full, each university limits the number of courses that can be taken in any semester. This limit appears as part of the input data. The third example below illustrates this issue. Input There are one to twentyfive data sets, followed by a final line containing only the integers 1 1. A data set starts with a line containing two positive integers n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 12, which is the number of courses in this data set and m, 2 ≤ m ≤ 6, which is the maximum number of courses that can be taken in any single semester. The next line contains the n course identifiers. Each is a 15 character string from the set {az, 09}. Following the course identifiers is the individual course information. This consists of n lines, one line for each course, containing the course identifier, semester offered('F'=Fall, 'S'=Spring, 'B'=Both semesters), the number of prerequisite courses, p, 0 ≤ p ≤ 5, and finally p prerequisite course identifiers. The first example data set below corresponds to the problem described above. Output The output contains one line for each data set, formatted as shown in the sample output. Sample Input 4 6 cs123 mt42 cs456 cs789 mt42 F 0 cs123 S 0 cs456 S 2 cs123 mt42 cs789 B 1 cs456 3 6 math1 comp2 comp3 comp3 S 1 comp2 math1 S 0 comp2 F 1 math1 4 3 m10 m20 c33 c44 m10 B 0 m20 B 0 c33 B 0 c44 B 0 1 1 Sample Output The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 5. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 4. The minimum number of semesters required to graduate is 2.
 GRE Words 是怎么实现的
 Problem Description Recently George is preparing for the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE for short). Obviously the most important thing is reciting the words. Now George is working on a word list containing N words. He has so poor a memory that it is too hard for him to remember all of the words on the list. But he does find a way to help him to remember. He finds that if a sequence of words has a property that for all pairs of neighboring words, the previous one is a substring of the next one, then the sequence of words is easy to remember. So he decides to eliminate some words from the word list first to make the list easier for him. Meantime, he doesn't want to miss the important words. He gives each word an importance, which is represented by an integer ranging from 1000 to 1000, then he wants to know which words to eliminate to maximize the sum of the importance of remaining words. Negative importance just means that George thought it useless and is a waste of time to recite the word. Note that although he can eliminate any number of words from the word list, he can never change the order between words. In another word, the order of words appeared on the word list is consistent with the order in the input. In addition, a word may have different meanings, so it can appear on the list more than once, and it may have different importance in each occurrence. Input The first line contains an integer T(1 <= T <= 50), indicating the number of test cases. Each test case contains several lines. The first line contains an integer N(1 <= N <= 2 * 104), indicating the number of words. Then N lines follows, each contains a string Si and an integer Wi, representing the word and its importance. Si contains only lowercase letters. You can assume that the total length of all words will not exceeded 3 * 105. Output For each test case in the input, print one line: "Case #X: Y", where X is the test case number (starting with 1) and Y is the largest importance of the remaining sequence of words. Sample Input 1 5 a 1 ab 2 abb 3 baba 5 abbab 8 Sample Output Case #1: 14
 GRE Words 单词的程序设计
 Problem Description Recently George is preparing for the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE for short). Obviously the most important thing is reciting the words. Now George is working on a word list containing N words. He has so poor a memory that it is too hard for him to remember all of the words on the list. But he does find a way to help him to remember. He finds that if a sequence of words has a property that for all pairs of neighboring words, the previous one is a substring of the next one, then the sequence of words is easy to remember. So he decides to eliminate some words from the word list first to make the list easier for him. Meantime, he doesn't want to miss the important words. He gives each word an importance, which is represented by an integer ranging from 1000 to 1000, then he wants to know which words to eliminate to maximize the sum of the importance of remaining words. Negative importance just means that George thought it useless and is a waste of time to recite the word. Note that although he can eliminate any number of words from the word list, he can never change the order between words. In another word, the order of words appeared on the word list is consistent with the order in the input. In addition, a word may have different meanings, so it can appear on the list more than once, and it may have different importance in each occurrence. Input The first line contains an integer T(1 <= T <= 50), indicating the number of test cases. Each test case contains several lines. The first line contains an integer N(1 <= N <= 2 * 104), indicating the number of words. Then N lines follows, each contains a string Si and an integer Wi, representing the word and its importance. Si contains only lowercase letters. You can assume that the total length of all words will not exceeded 3 * 105. Output For each test case in the input, print one line: "Case #X: Y", where X is the test case number (starting with 1) and Y is the largest importance of the remaining sequence of words. Sample Input 1 5 a 1 ab 2 abb 3 baba 5 abbab 8 Sample Output Case #1: 14
 Sokoban 完整性判断
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 输出多项式的系数使得给定的方程成立，怎么用C语言的程序的设计的代码编写的思想方法来实现的
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 Ride to School
 Description Many graduate students of Peking University are living in Wanliu Campus, which is 4.5 kilometers from the main campus – Yanyuan. Students in Wanliu have to either take a bus or ride a bike to go to school. Due to the bad traffic in Beijing, many students choose to ride a bike. We may assume that all the students except "Charley" ride from Wanliu to Yanyuan at a fixed speed. Charley is a student with a different riding habit – he always tries to follow another rider to avoid riding alone. When Charley gets to the gate of Wanliu, he will look for someone who is setting off to Yanyuan. If he finds someone, he will follow that rider, or if not, he will wait for someone to follow. On the way from Wanliu to Yanyuan, at any time if a faster student surpassed Charley, he will leave the rider he is following and speed up to follow the faster one. We assume the time that Charley gets to the gate of Wanliu is zero. Given the set off time and speed of the other students, your task is to give the time when Charley arrives at Yanyuan. Input There are several test cases. The first line of each case is N (1 <= N <= 10000) representing the number of riders (excluding Charley). N = 0 ends the input. The following N lines are information of N different riders, in such format: Vi [TAB] Ti Vi is a positive integer <= 40, indicating the speed of the ith rider (kph, kilometers per hour). Ti is the set off time of the ith rider, which is an integer and counted in seconds. In any case it is assured that there always exists a nonnegative Ti. Output Output one line for each case: the arrival time of Charley. Round up (ceiling) the value when dealing with a fraction. Sample Input 4 20 0 25 155 27 190 30 240 2 21 0 22 34 0 Sample Output 780 771
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