2019-03-14 17:06 阅读 959


I'm currently testing an API on a website with a certificate by executing a php script that uses curl, in command line on my local windows machine. But the script never manages to reach the server. I have looked up solutions for this apparently frequent error, and tried the following, without success:

  • Made sure the certificate is still valid.
  • Made sure that the openssl php extension is enabled in php.ini, and that the .dll is indeed there.
  • Downloaded the latest certificate bundle from, as explained in the answer to this question and added it to php.ini. I have also checked that the certification authority for the website I'm trying to contact is indeed in that bundle (in my case, Comodo).
  • Downloaded an older certificate bundle that's closer to the beginning of the website's certificate validity period.
  • Downloaded the certificate directly from the certification authority via this link, and added the .crt to my php.ini file.
  • Converted the .crt file retrieved above to .pem using this tool, then adding it to php.ini (replacing the one above).

Here is the script I'm using for testing (I'm executing it using php in command line only):

$data = 'username=myuser&password=mypassword';
$ch = curl_init('');
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, true);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_COOKIEJAR, 'cookie.txt');
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $data);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_VERBOSE, true);
//curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, 0);
//curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, 0);

If I uncomment the two lines in there to bypass certificate validation entirely, it works perfectly, but I want to avoid that.

In all cases, I have tried path with both slashes and backslashes, I am certain that the correct php.ini is used, and that php does have access to the .pem file location. This is confirmed by the output of the php script (I have replaced the actual url I'm using):

> *   Trying
> * Connected to ( port 443 (#0)
> * ALPN, offering http/1.1
> * successfully set certificate verify locations:   
> CAfile: C:\Development\examples\COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.pem  
> CApath: none
> * NPN, negotiated HTTP1.1
> * SSL certificate problem: unable to get issuer certificate
> * stopped the pause stream!
> * Closing connection 0

I'm currently out of ideas for checking what I did wrong and how to fix it.

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2条回答 默认 最新

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    douchun6221 douchun6221 2019-03-15 10:10

    So, in the end, here is how I finally managed to do it: as the error suggests, and couple of answers also points out to, the Certification Authority's certificate chain is missing from my configuration, and is not in the pack downloaded from .

    So in the end, I found this question that pointed me in the right direction: I went to the website I was trying to connect to using firefox, and exported the certificate as type "X.509 Certfificate with chain (PEM)", to the file C:/Development/examples/mycert.pem . Then, I changed my php.ini configuration to

    curl.cainfo=C:/Development/examples/ openssl.cafile=C:/Development/examples/

    And that did the trick! I can connect to the website without issue.

    It is also possible to simply copy-paste the content of at the end of the file downloaded from, and it works as well, and is probably more versatile if you need to connect to other websites that are using certificates with php curl.

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  • douzhang5199 douzhang5199 2019-03-14 17:48

    Are you able to connect to the server from the command line with curl?

    curl -vs --cacert C:\Development\examples\COMODORSADomainValidationSecureServerCA.pem 

    Probably there is a mismatch between the server certificate and the bundle you've downloaded, i.e. the certificate is not in the bundle.

    If you have openssl installed you can extract the CA cert from your server with

    openssl s_client -showcerts -servername server -connect server:443 > cacert.pem

    The description of a similar problem can be found here

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