2019-05-16 06:17
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为什么Rust要求使用C ++工具链来生成Rust二进制文件,而Go之类的语言却没有此要求?

Compiling a Rust file with rustc foo.rs fails if I don't have a C++ toolchain installed. But when compiling a Go program, such a toolchain is not required. Why is that?

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使用 rustc foo.rs 编译Rust文件失败 已安装C ++工具链。 但是在编译Go程序时,不需要这样的工具链。 为什么会这样?

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  • douguan1887 2019-05-16 10:56

    TL;DR: Because everyone has a C toolchain.

    Slight correction: rustc does not require a C++ toolchain, it only requires a C toolchain. Notably, rustc created binaries only depend on libc (or equivalent), not on libstdc++ (or equivalent).

    As Go demonstrated, it is possible to not require a C toolchain. You only need to re-implement its functionality:

    • You need to implement your own linker, respecting the target platform format.
    • You need to implement your own libc (aka OS layer).

    There are advantages to doing so, such as possibly faster compilation or easier cross-compiling, however there is a cost in doing the implementation, and it's easy to get things wrong.

    The Rust community preferred to put more effort into the language than in the toolchain, and therefore reusing the stock toolchain was easier. Specifically, rustc will require a platform linker (ld on Unix) and platform equivalent to libc.

    This is not a core design principle, it's just a pragmatic approach, and there are projects to cut down on these dependencies:

    • Using lld rather than ld would allow shipping a single linker with rustc which can target all platforms.
    • Using cranelift as an alternative backend could also remove the dependency on ld.
    • The Redox project is working on relibc, a portable Rust implementation of the libc API.

    Those are all work in progress, and in the meantime rustc will require a C toolchain. Furthermore, even in the foreseeable future, I would expect rustc to require a C toolchain for targets not yet covered by any Rust toolchain, just so you can use the target without waiting for some hypothetical development.

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